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Acceptable physical properties are an integral part of root-media quality. However, there is no one growing medium that works best in all situations because root-media physical properties are not constant, but rather can be affected by the grower. Understanding the root environment under production conditions requires an understanding of the dynamic nature of air : water : solid ratio in the medium. The objective of this review is to consider key aspects of root-medium physical properties, which include bulk density and particle size, container capacity, media settling, water absorption, rewettability, moisture release characteristics, and water loss due to evaporation from the root-medium surface.

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available on the chemical and physical properties of DFB as it pertains to use as a container substrate. Most literature on this subject refers to the chemical properties of soluble components extracted for pulpwood or other industrial chemical purposes

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1970s, with increasing acceptance due to its availability, favorable physical properties, and lack of detrimental chemical constituents when used to grow container crops. The harvesting, dilution or contamination with wood from other species, lumber

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objective was to determine the influence of substituting PB at commercial nursery operations with commercially harvested and processed PW on substrate physical properties. Materials and Methods Chipped pine ( Pinus taeda ) logs, including bark and wood but

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The physical properties of container-growing substrates, particularly air space, container capacity, and bulk density, have a significant impact on plant growth, and knowledge of these properties is essential in properly managing nursery

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). Hollow-tine aerification, also known as core aerification, is an effective practice that physically removes a soil core to improve soil physical properties. Research has shown that HT aerification improves water infiltration and reduces VWC in putting

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reduction in substrate volume results in a change in physical properties that affect AS and CC. Aendekerk (1997) showed the relative decomposition and shrinkage of several peat sources as a function of substrate pH and sub-irrigation level. While pH and

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physical and chemical properties as required by the specific crop and cultural conditions ( Bunt, 1988 ). One of the most common materials used in the formulation of substrates is sphagnum peat (peat). However, environmental concerns ( Barkham, 1993

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properties of shallow-depth substrates and their relationship to initial plant growth. Greenhouse and laboratory trials were conducted to determine the physical properties of substrates with increasing concentrations of compost and hydrogel, and to evaluate

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by the blending of two or more components such as peat, composted bark, perlite, whole rice hulls, or vermiculite ( Hanan, 1998 ; Nelson, 2003 ). Substrates are designed to have appropriate physical properties for specific crops and growing

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