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Jong-Yi Fang and Siguina Traore

effective tool for crop improvement, and more than 2250 mutant cultivars have been released worldwide ( Ahloowalia et al., 2004 ). Artificial mutation induction can be carried out using physical and chemical mutagens and mutation induction with radiation was

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Killian Melsen, Mark van de Wouw, and Ryan Contreras

physical mutagens to plant breeding was quickly recognized ( Gates, 1930 ). Approximately two decades later, the first chemical mutagens were discovered in the United Kingdom and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( Auerbach and Robson, 1946 ; Rapoport

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Anakkaorn Wannajindaporn, Chitpan Kativat, and Piyada Alisha Tantasawat

been used successfully in several plants including Dendrobium ( Khatri et al., 2011 ; Khosravi et al., 2009 ; Kumar et al., 2011 ; Mostafa and Alfrmawy, 2011 ). Mutations can be induced by either radiation or chemical mutagens. The most commonly

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Nuananong Purente, Bin Chen, Xiaowei Liu, Yunwei Zhou, and Miao He

mutagens can be used to induce and select favorable mutants, thus an ideal method to improve varieties of C. indicum var. aromaticum . Induced mutagenesis is widely used to obtain mutants with desirable plant traits ( Ahloowalia et al., 2004

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Wenhao Dai and Victoria Magnusson

induced by physical or chemical mutagens ( Predieri, 2001 ; Schum, 2003 ). Mutation breeding has been shown to be an established method to develop new cultivars of many horticultural plants ( Mandal et al., 2000 ; Predieri, 2001 ; Van Harten, 1998

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Yongjun Yue and John M. Ruter

morphological traits ( Ibrahim et al., 2018 ; Loewe and Hill, 2010 ; Schum, 2003 ). Plant breeding requires genetic variations for segregation and recombination. There are two main types of mutation: physical and chemical. Among the physical mutagens, X

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Paul D. Curtis, Gwen B. Curtis, and William B. Miller

were unpalatable, while those with onion were readily consumed. The concentration of secondary compounds in autumn crocus was possibly toxic for seven voles. Colchicine is a known mutagen and may arrest cell meiosis ( Harborne et al., 1999 ). Pathology

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Kelly J. Vining, Ryan N. Contreras, Martin Ranik, and Steven H. Strauss

using mutagenesis; most information on the effects of chemical and physical mutagens on fertility comes from research done on woody fruit trees. Lapins (1975) observed reduced male and female fertility in diploid mutants of apricot ( Prunus armeniaca

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Susan C. Miyasaka, Charles E. McCulloch, and Scot C. Nelson

:// > Ferguson, L.R. Roberton, A.M. Mckenzie, R.J. Watson, M.E. Harris, P.J. 1992 Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to dietary fiber from taro ( Colocasia esculenta ), an important food plant of the South Pacific Nutr. Cancer 17 85 95 Food and

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Sima Taheri, Thohirah Lee Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay Abdullah, and Zaiton Ahmad

, point mutation, and/or complex chromosomal rearrangements induced by gamma radiation ( Atienzar and Jha, 2006 ). Radiation is one of the best known physical mutagens in which the water molecule is one of its major, direct, and most important targets