The relationship between source leaf position and the photo-assimilate translocation and distribution was characterized for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown in the greenhouse. Three different positions of source leaf on the stem (first node above or below the first fruit cluster and fifth node above the first fruit cluster) were tested for their influence on 14CO2 assimilation and transfer to different parts of the plant. The leaves at the fifth node above the first fruit cluster transferred the highest (57%) proportion of C14 to other plant parts, followed by leaves borne on the first node below the first fruit cluster (50%), and the first node above the first fruit cluster (39%). In all treatments, fruits served as the strongest sink for C14, followed by stem, leaf, and root tissues. The leaf borne on the fifth node above the first fruit cluster transferred the largest amount of C14 to the second fruit cluster.
Sang Gyu Lee* and Chiwon W. Lee
Justine E. Vanden Heuvel, Evangelos D. Leonardos, John T.A. Proctor, K. Helen Fisher, and J. Alan Sullivan
Potted `Chardonnay' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) with either two or three shoots were grown in a greenhouse for one month and then transferred to a phytotron room, where either one or two shoots were shaded. Twenty-four days after transfer, leaves at the fifth node of either the light-adapted or shade-adapted shoot were exposed to a 2-hour pulse of 14CO2. Both light environment and number of shade shoots on the vine had a significant effect on photosynthate partitioning within the plant following a 22-hour chase. Leaves fed with 14CO2 on a light-adapted shoot translocated 26.1% and 12.7% more radioactivity to the roots and trunk, respectively, than leaves from shade-adapted shoots. Photosynthates were exported from light-adapted leaves to shade-adapted shoots (1.3% of total 14C in plant). The number of shaded shoots and the light environment of the fed leaf had a large effect on partitioning of photosynthates among ethanol-insoluble, water-soluble, and chloroform-soluble fractions within the leaf. Recovered 14C in the water-soluble fraction of the fed leaf appeared to be affected more by number of shoots than by light environment of the fed leaf. The data suggest that there is a sink effect on initial carbon partitioning patterns in grapevine leaves. Sink strength may have a greater role than light environment. A large proportion of interior leaves versus exterior leaves may be costly with respect to the carbohydrate budget of a vine.
Sang Gyu Lee* and Chiwon W. Lee
The pattern of translocation and distribution of C14 labeled photo-assimilates in watermelon and tomato grown in the greenhouse and field was characterized. Each of the mature leaves of the plant at active fruit development stage was exposed to 14CO2 (20 μCi radio activity) for 40 min and the leaves, stems, fruit, and roots were harvested 3, 6, 9, or 12 hours after treatment. One half of the plants were grown under natural light and the other half in the dark during the experimental period. The activity of C14 in the dry tissues of the leaves, stems, fruits, and roots was determined, using a liquid scintillation analyzer. Both watermelon and tomato plants grown in the greenhouse and field contained C14 in all tissue types 3 hr after treatment, regardless of exposure to light or dark during the experimental period. Watermelon and tomato, respectively, transferred 22% to 61% and 9% to 26% C14 from the source leaf in 3 hours. Fruit tissues served as the strongest sink, with the highest percentages of C14 transfer in watermelon (99%) and tomato (90%) in plants grown in the field. The rate of C14 translocation was highest when plants were kept in the dark after 14CO2 feeding. In general, total translocation of C14 compounds from the source leaf was higher in watermelon than in tomato plants. For both watermelon and tomato, most field-grown plants showed a higher rate of C14 translocation as compared to greenhouse grown plants for a given period of time.
J.A. Flore and Desmond Layne
Resource partitioning between individual sink organs is dependent upon the supply of carbon from current photosynthesis and reserves, the relative ability of the translocation system to deliver resources to the sinks, and the strength or competitive ability of the sinks. To comprehend photoassimilate distribution in Prunus, one must have a general understanding of habitat, growth patterns, and changes in sink demand over the life cycle and seasonal development of the plant. In this review, we describe assimilation rates for the major Prunus species and general dry matter allocation patterns, with emphasis on environmental and biological factors that effect photosynthesis, partitioning, and control. The following factors will be covered: annual growth, changes with tree age, environmental and biological factors that effect photosynthesis, genetic factors, water, light, fruiting, and pruning.
Anthony W. Whiley and Bruce Schaffer
The influence of shoot age on 14C partitioning in potted avocado (Persea americana var. americana Mill.) trees was determined. The oldest leaf of actively growing shoots and the youngest leaf of previously matured shoots were exposed to 14CO2 18 and 34 days after budbreak (DABB) of new shoots. At these times, treated leaves had a positive net CO2 assimilation rate and, therefore, were considered to be net C exporters. Sixteen days after 14C exposure, separate plant tissues were harvested, dried, weighed, and oxidized. The percentage of 14C in each tissue was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Photoassimilates were translocated acropetally and basipetally from all treated leaves. However, at 18 DABB, developing leaves of actively growing shoots seemed to be the strongest sink for C assimilated by the oldest leaf of these shoots, whereas the roots were the strongest sink for C assimilated by the youngest leaf of the previously matured shoots. By 34 DABB, roots were the strongest sink for C assimilated by leaves of new and previously matured shoots. These data are useful in developing improved management strategies for controlling phytophthora root rot (incited by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands) in avocados by systemic phosphonate fungicides translocated in the photoassimilate pathway. Thus, phosphonates should be applied after shoots have matured and most of the canopy is in a quiescent state for maximum translocation to the roots.
Stenhen F. Klauer, J. Scott Cameron, and Paul W. Foote
Results from previous cultural and physiological studies of red raspberry suggest that primocanes compete with floricanes for light, nutrients and/or photoassimilates. This study was undertaken to determine whether this competition might be reflected in the actual translocation of photoassimilates between the two types of canes. In 1993, pairs of greenhouse grown, potted red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants contaming one or two floricanes and numerous primocanes were labeled with 14CO2 on four dates corresponding with early anthesis, green fruit, red fruit and post fruit maturity stages of the growing season. For each experiment, either a floricane or a primocane was exposed to 92.5μCi 14CO2 within a sealed bag. After 24 hours, the bag was removed and the presence of label was monitored for up to 11 days. Activity was determined using liquid scintillation. At all developmental stages 14C moved from the labeled floricane to primocanes that were from 2.5 cm to 1.5 m tall and to the roots. Movement was quickest and relatively greatest at early anthesis, dccreascd during fruiting, and was still occuring at 2 months after fruit maturity. Small amounts of label were detected in roots of labeled primocanes at all stages, but trace amounts were present in fruit and other primocanes only at post fruit maturity.
Sang Gyu Lee* and Chiwon W. Lee
The pattern of C14 carbohydrate translocation and distribution from source leaf to various plant parts in watermelon grown in the greenhouse and field was investigated. Seedling-grown plants were pruned to have two branches with only one of them carrying a fruit. When leaves at four different positions (on fruit-bearing node, on fifth node above and below it, and on fifth node from the base of the non-fruit-bearing stem) were exposed to 14CO, the distribution of C14 2 compounds to different parts (fruit, stem, leaf, root) of the plant varied. In all treatments, the fruit was the strongest sink, followed by stem, leaf and root tissues. The highest percentage of C14 photo-assimilates was transferred out of the source when the leaf borne on the fruit-bearing node was exposed to 14CO2 in both greenhouse and field grown plants. Translocation of C14 compounds from the leaves on the fifth node above and below the first fruit-carrying node was similar. Only 29% of C14 was transferred from the source leaf borne on the fifth node of the non-fruit bearing branch in the greenhouse, as compared to more than 46% of C14 from other source leaves. Accumulation of C14 in the root tissues was highest when source leaves were borne on the non-fruit bearing branch. In general, field-grown plants had higher percentages of C14 translocated as compared to greenhouse-grown plants.
Yue Wen, Shu-chai Su, Ting-ting Jia, and Xiang-nan Wang
growth period of C. oleifera was the oil conversion stage, during which 13 C-labeled photoassimilates in the third and fifth leaves decreased at the fastest rate. Moreover, the level of translocation to the fruit kernel increased most notably during
Marlene Ayala and Gregory Lang
. Sci. 71 533 543 Correa, J.E. 2008 Effect of spur thinning on the photoassimilate translocation and the morphological characteristics of sweet cherry fruit ( Prunus avium L.) in the combination ‘Bing’/‘Gisela®5’. Pontificia Universidad Católica de
Marlene Ayala, Lorena Mora, and Joaquín Torreblanca
demand for photoassimilates is related to endocarp and cell wall development ( Toldam-Andersen, 1998 ). Fruits influence the translocation patterns of carbohydrates (CH 2 O), inducing competition with vegetative organs ( Ayala and Lang, 2008 ; Roper et