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-Tal et al., 1995 ; Wang et al., 1998, 2001 ). The rate of phloem unloading serves as a key determinant of crop yield and plant productivity ( Fisher and Oparka, 1996 ; Patrick, 1997 ). The unloading pathway is a central process of the unloading

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of δ 13 C obtained from phloem sap (δ 13 C phl ) as a surrogate measure of whole canopy leaf δ 13 C ( Cernusak et al., 2003 ; Keitel et al., 2006 ; Merchant et al., 2010c ; Rascher et al., 2010 ; Salmon et al., 2011 ). Transport of metabolites

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Citrus HLB (synonym citrus greening) is a highly destructive, fast-spreading disease of citrus. Its presumed pathological agent, Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is a fastidious Gram-negative, obligate parasite, phloem-limited α

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., 2013 ). Johnson et al. (2014) demonstrated that within 10 months after infection of young ‘Hamlin’ trees, C Las colonized ≈80% of the plant roots. The HLB-associated root loss was not accompanied by ultrastructural changes in phloem anatomy

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, and smooth anticlinal thick walls; a magnified view of such features is shown in the chalaza ( C–E ). Scale bars: 500 μm ( A–B ), 50 μm ( C ), 100 μm ( D ), 50 μm ( E ), 10 μm; C = chalaza; F = fossetes; K = karina or keel; L = lenticel; PF = phloem

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Abstract

Phloem cross-sectional areas (PCSA) in main stems and storage root stalks were determined for 3 cultivars of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] for 98 days, starting 14 days after transplanting at 10-day intervals. As the number of storage roots increased, the total amount of phloem in the storage root stalks available for translocation was greater than that in the main stem. For the last 3 harvest periods, ‘Jasper’ was the only cultivar with less phloem in the storage root stalks than in the main stem. The correlation between PCSA of the storage root stalks and storage root weight was nonsignificant for ‘Jasper’ and ‘ Porto Rico’ but significant for ‘Centennial’, which suggested that the amount of phloem tissue is not critical for storage root development.

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et al., 2012 ), the relationship—if any exists—between photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure has not been widely characterized. Phloem sieve elements are nonnucleated cells, largely controlled by their nucleolated companion cells, and their

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. and Clematis maritima L., primary phloem fiber and collenchyma are displaced outward by plant development, which led to disrupting the mechanical integrity, but not in semiself-supporting Clematis recta L. ( Rowe et al., 2004 ). Modulus of

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assessing injury in different tissues, but the level of browning that leads to mortality may differ between the xylem, cambium, and phloem. Acclimation begins in distal parts of the tree and progresses toward the base, so the trunk is the last part of the

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to −16 °C ( Buchanan et al. 1976 ; Szalay et al. 2010 ). Differing hardiness among shoot xylem, cambium, and phloem is not commonly considered, but rates of acclimation can vary among these tissues. Arora et al. (1992) found that the bark in peach

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