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ZhaoSen Xie, Charles F. Forney, WenPing Xu and ShiPing Wang

-Tal et al., 1995 ; Wang et al., 1998, 2001 ). The rate of phloem unloading serves as a key determinant of crop yield and plant productivity ( Fisher and Oparka, 1996 ; Patrick, 1997 ). The unloading pathway is a central process of the unloading

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Andrew Merchant

of δ 13 C obtained from phloem sap (δ 13 C phl ) as a surrogate measure of whole canopy leaf δ 13 C ( Cernusak et al., 2003 ; Keitel et al., 2006 ; Merchant et al., 2010c ; Rascher et al., 2010 ; Salmon et al., 2011 ). Transport of metabolites

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Craig Brodersen, Cody Narciso, Mary Reed and Ed Etxeberria

Citrus HLB (synonym citrus greening) is a highly destructive, fast-spreading disease of citrus. Its presumed pathological agent, Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is a fastidious Gram-negative, obligate parasite, phloem-limited α

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Naveen Kumar, Fnu Kiran and Ed Etxeberria

., 2013 ). Johnson et al. (2014) demonstrated that within 10 months after infection of young ‘Hamlin’ trees, C Las colonized ≈80% of the plant roots. The HLB-associated root loss was not accompanied by ultrastructural changes in phloem anatomy

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Bhaskar Bondada

, and smooth anticlinal thick walls; a magnified view of such features is shown in the chalaza ( C–E ). Scale bars: 500 μm ( A–B ), 50 μm ( C ), 100 μm ( D ), 50 μm ( E ), 10 μm; C = chalaza; F = fossetes; K = karina or keel; L = lenticel; PF = phloem

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Huan-Keng Lin, Tzu-Yao Wei, Chin-Mu Chen and Der-Ming Yeh

. and Clematis maritima L., primary phloem fiber and collenchyma are displaced outward by plant development, which led to disrupting the mechanical integrity, but not in semiself-supporting Clematis recta L. ( Rowe et al., 2004 ). Modulus of

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Shuang Han, Jiafu Jiang, Huiyun Li, Aiping Song, Sumei Chen and Fadi Chen

et al., 2012 ), the relationship—if any exists—between photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure has not been widely characterized. Phloem sieve elements are nonnucleated cells, largely controlled by their nucleolated companion cells, and their

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Renae E. Moran, Bryan J. Peterson, Gennaro Fazio and John Cline

assessing injury in different tissues, but the level of browning that leads to mortality may differ between the xylem, cambium, and phloem. Acclimation begins in distal parts of the tree and progresses toward the base, so the trunk is the last part of the

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Hui-qing Li, Qing-he Li, Lei Xing, Gao-jie Sun and Xiu-lian Zhao

tissue. Cold hardiness estimation of stem using the TTC test has been mainly focused on the phloem ( Sharma and Graves, 2004 ; Soloklui et al., 2012 ) and xylem ( Zhang et al., 2012 ). Although time-consuming, tissue browning is still generally used due

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Ed Stover, Robert G. Shatters Jr., Barrett Gruber, Prem Kumar and Gloria A. Moore

enhance starch accumulation. Therefore, this study was initiated to determine if use of continuous lighting or phloem disruption from scoring (like girdling without removal of a bark strip) would enhance the efficiency of evaluating HLB susceptibility