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Longyi Yuan, Yang Gao, and Deying Li

Spills of petroleum-based products on turfgrass happen primarily because of equipment failure or improper refueling. Hydrocarbons are a major component of fuels and hydraulic fluids, and are hazardous to the environment ( Aislabie et al., 2006

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Ruiqin Bai and Deying Li

Turfgrass management today involves the use of many sophisticated types of mechanical equipments that are usually powered by petroleum fuels and controlled by hydraulic fluids. Petroleum-based spills occur ( Johns and Beard, 1979 ) primarily because

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Xiuli Shen, William S. Castle, and Frederick G. Gmitter Jr

characteristics among Casuarina spp. and causes of low seed germination; and 2) determine the effectiveness of petroleum ether separation and seedcoat removal on seed germination. Materials and Methods Seed sources Mature brown cones were collected on 5 Mar

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Craig E. Kallsen

The potential of petroleum sprays to thin navel orange (Citrus sinensis) crops in the San Joaquin Valley of California was examined in 1996, 1997 and 1998. Petroleum oils had not been used within the experimental site as adjuvants in other sprays or as pesticides in the previous year or during the experiment. `Bonanza' navel oranges trees were treated annually or in alternate years with a light narrow-range petroleum oil [distillation midpoint of 415 °F (213 °C)], a medium narrow-range oil [distillation midpoint of 440 °F (227 °C)] and/or heavier oil [distillation midpoint 470 °F (247 °C)] in a range of applications from 5 to 15% by volume in a total spray volume of 200 gal/acre (1870 L·ha-1). Trees treated with oil in 1996, 1997 and 1998 had 38% and 27% fewer fruit per tree in 1997 and 1998, respectively compared to trees not treated with oil indicating that crop thinning had occurred. In 1998, yield was lower in the trees that had been treated with oil annually for three consecutive years. Consecutive, annual applications of petroleum oil applied 1 to 3 weeks after petal fall produced a shift from smaller fruit sizes to larger fruit sizes beginning the second year.

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M.L. Elliott and M. Prevatte

Petroleum and vegetable oil hydraulic fluids were spread on `Tifgreen' bermudagrass at three volumes (125, 250, and 500 ml) and three temperatures (27, 49, and 94C) to simulate a turfgrass equipment leak. Initial damage, recovery, and effects for a 1-year period were compared among treatments. All hydraulic fluid treatments resulted in 100% leaf necrosis within 10 days of application. Turfgrass recovery was influenced primarily by the fluid volume. After recovery, only plots treated with petroleum hydraulic fluid were periodically chlorotic, resulting in lower turfgrass quality. Long-term negative effects of hydraulic leaks from golf course equipment may be reduced by using vegetable oil hydraulic fluid.

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Amy Fulcher, Diana R. Cochran, and Andrew K. Koeser

Ornamental plant production relies almost exclusively on petroleum-based plastic containers. Within the United States, annual plastic use for ornamental plant containers is estimated at 1.66 billion pounds ( Schrader, 2013 ). Worldwide, ≈8% of

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D.E. Deyton, C.E. Sams, and J.C. Cummins

Treatments of 0, 10, 20, 30, or 40% (v/v) refined (salad) or crude soybean oil or 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% petroleum (dormant) oil at 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% were sprayed until drip on `Smoothee' apple trees on 27 February 1991. The internal carbon dioxide concentration was elevated and the oxygen content reduced within one day in buds-twigs treated with oil and remained influenced for up to 12 days. All oil treatments delayed fruit bud development. The lowest tested concentration of soybean oil (either crude or refined) resulted in the greatest delay in bud development and the greatest delay in bloom (approximately 4 days). Crude soybean oil treatment resulted in less damage to flower buds than petroleum oil.

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Alejandro Alarcon*, Frederick T. Davies, David Wm. Reed, Robin L. Autenrieth, and David A. Zuberer

Arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF) have been used in phytoremediation and can increase tolerance and growth of plants in contaminated environments. However, little is known about the influence AMF on plant growth to organic contaminants in soils. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of seedlings of annual ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) var. Passerel Plus inoculated with Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith in soil contaminated with sweet Arabian median crude oil. Inoculated (AMF) and non-inoculated (Non-AMF) plants were established in an pasteurized and artificially contaminated sandy loam soil with 0; 3000; 15,000; or 45,000 mg of petroleum kg-1 soil (n = 20). Plants were inoculated with 500 spores of G. intraradices (Mycorise® ASP, PremierTech Biotechnologies, Canada). After 90 days, plant growth of AMF or Non-AMF plants, was drastically affected at all petroleum concentrations. However, G. intraradices enhanced plant growth, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange of plants grown at 3,000 mg kg-1 compared to Non-AMF plants. Total leaf area, chlorophyll, and net photosynthesis were also higher (+380%, +63%, and +81%, respectively) at this concentration. Water use efficiency (net photosynthesis/stomatal conductance) of AMF-plants was three times greater than Non-AMF at 3,000 mg·kg-1. At concentrations of 15,000 and 45,000 mg kg-1 AMF did not have effect, but colonization was observed (11.8% and 18.6%, respectively). These values of colonization were significantly lower than those observed in AMF-plants at 0 (42.5%) and 3,000 mg·kg-1 (55.6%). Studies are currently being conducted to understand the physiological role of AMF on plants exposed to organic contaminants.

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J.P. Syvertsen and M. Salyani

The effects of three highly refined petroleum spray oils and of ambient vapor pressure on net CO2 assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance of water vapor (gs) of single grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) leaves were investigated. Overall, gs of various-aged leaves was decreased by a large leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (VPD). In the first experiment, oils with midpoint distillation temperatures (50% DT) of 224, 235, and 247C were applied with a hand atomizer at concentrations of 0, 1%, and 4% oil emulsions in water and 100% oil, all with 0.82% surfactant (by volume). There was a tendency for oils of the two higher DT to decrease net gas exchange during a subsequent 12 days, but significant differences could not be attributed to oil DT. Both A and gs were reduced by the two higher concentrations of oil mixtures. In the second experiment, a commercial airblast sprayer was used to apply the 224C oil at 4% or the 235C oil at 2% and 4% mixtures plus surfactant under field conditions. There were no significant effects of oil treatments on net gas exchange of leaves either measured under moderate VPD outdoors 1 day after spraying or under low VPD in the laboratory 2 days after spraying. No visible phytotoxic symptoms were observed in either experiment.

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B.L. Tan, N. Reddy, V. Sarafis, G.A.C. Beattie, and R. Spooner-Hart

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to detect petroleum-derived spray oils (PDSOs) in citrus seedlings and trees. The NMR spectrum of the phantom containing 10% (v/v) of a nC24 agricultural mineral oil (AMO) showed the resonance of the water protons at δ ≈ 5 ppm, while the resonance of the oil protons at δ = 1.3 to 1.7 ppm. The peak resolution and the chemical shift difference of more than 3.3 ppm between water and oil protons effectively differentiated water and the oil. Chemical shift selective imaging (CSSI) was performed to localize the AMO within the stems of Citrus trifoliata L. seedlings after the application of a 4% (v/v) spray. The chemical shift selective images of the oil were acquired by excitation at δ = 1.5 ppm by averaging over 400 transients in each phase-encoding step. Oil was mainly detected in the outer cortex of stems within 10 d of spray application; some oil was also observed in the inner vascular bundle and pith of the stems at this point. CSSI was also applied to investigate the persistence of oil deposits in sprayed mature Washington navel orange (Citrus ×aurantium L.) trees in an orchard. The trees were treated with either fourteen 0.25%, fourteen 0.5%, four 1.75%, or single 7% sprays of a nC23 horticultural mineral oil (HMO) 12 to 16 months before examination of plant tissues by CSSI, and were still showing symptoms of chronic phytotoxicity largely manifested as reduced yield. The oil deposits were detected in stems of sprayed flushes and unsprayed flushes produced 4 to 5 months after the last spray was applied, suggesting a potential movement of the oil via phloem and a correlation of the persistence of oil deposit in plants and the phytotoxicity. The results demonstrate that MRI is an effective method to probe the uptake and localization of PDSOs and other xenobiotics in vivo in plants noninvasively and nondestructively.