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pathogen necessitate chemical control in the form of pesticide applications ( Tolley, 1990 ). Given the seriousness of the disease, it is important to protect even apparently disease-free trees ( Aubert, 1990 ), especially with new growth flush ( Aubert

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, local, state, and national restrictions are limiting use of chemical and water inputs. In Minnesota, phosphorus applications to turf are restricted throughout the state ( State of Minnesota, 2008 ). In Canada, the use of lawn and garden pesticides and

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When Master Gardeners first begin a training class, their preconceived notions about concepts such as IPM, pests and pest management are usually very similar to those of the general gardening public. Master Gardeners interact extensively with home owners and are often either the first or the only person from an Extension office with whom an individual speaks. We designated part of their initial training to a module aimed at getting them to understand basic concepts about IPM, pests and pest management. Slides were used to review the different types of pests/pesticides and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles that apply to a) insects and related organisms, b) diseases and c) weeds. These were accompanied by very simple guidelines for each pest group, stressing that pesticides should not automatically be the home owner's first choice. The pesticide label reading portion of this module started with basic information about pesticide labels themselves. From there, Master Gardener trainees were led through an exercise where they had to find specific information on various labels: Sevin, RoundUp, Daconil 2787, Brush-B-Gon, Phyton 27, Dipel, and Amdro. For fruit and vegetable use, they had to find preharvest intervals and any restrictions on planting. For all products, they looked for rates, timing, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)—if listed, and noted label variations. Pre-training scores averaged 60% while post-training scores were 90% or higher.

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Onion maggot (Delia antiqua Meigen) is a major pest of common onion (Allium cepa L.) throughout production areas in the northern USA. Continued use of chemicals to control onion maggot (OM) is threatened by the increased resistance of OM to available pesticides and tighter restrictions on chemical use, making host plant resistance a desirable goal. Approximately 400 accessions of various Al1ium species were planted in a commercial onion field of muck soil near Geneva, NY. These plantings lacked treatment for protection from OM attack. The greatest damage in the planting occurred on A. cepa with an average of 79% stand loss for 144 accessions. Accessions of A. ampeloprasum L. (leek) averaged 36% stand loss in June with a 55% infestation level in October, while accessions of A. schoenoprasum L. (chives) averaged 36% stand loss in June with a 55% infestation level in October.

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Managers of greenhouses used in vocational training or therapeutic programs often face pesticide use restrictions due to medical safety codes, possible sensitivity due to client medications, frequent presence of patient groups, or the added risk of exposure to clients with limited awareness. This review of three horticultural therapy programs emphasizes the practice of preventive measures, manual controls, and limited chemical methods to discourage pest problems and outlines pest control strategies that may not be feasible in commercial greenhouses. The importance and application of integrated pest management and biological pest controls are discussed. Procedures and client activities for sanitation, cultural controls, pest monitoring, and safe application of spray solutions are presented. Client work habits and skills may be developed using the tasks suggested for pest control, and various skill competency levels may be incorporated into the management scheme. The need for client training and task accomplishment may encourage alternative labor-intensive pest-control methods in therapeutic greenhouses.

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Four decades ago, irrigation in much of the southeastern U.S. was considered not sensible economically because of normal rainfall in excess of 1200 mm in some areas. More-recent research has shown that irrigation makes definite economic sense because it can increase production substantially. This is especially true in Florida citrus, where irrigation can increase yield by up to 60%. Drip and microsprinkler irrigation have become popular, and these methods of partial root-zone coverage affect tree water potential and yield. Growing environmental concerns about possible nitrate and pesticide leaching to the groundwater have led to greater emphasis on irrigation management in an area of highly variable rainfall. Rapidly growing population has brought about increased competition for water and greater restrictions on agricultural water use. Reclaimed water, once considered a disposal problem, is now being promoted as a partial solution for periodic water shortages. Discussion will focus on tree response to different irrigation management systems and how agriculture is dealing with greater irrigation restrictions.

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cities/municipalities currently work with limited and strict financial budgets. Increasing costs to manage properties without pesticides would severely affect towns if new restrictions were to be implemented at either a local or state level, with no

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grounds (including athletic fields), school grounds/athletic field managers (hereby referred to as school grounds managers) were transitioned from no restrictions with regard to pesticide use to an IPM program with a mandated IPM plan, to no use of lawn

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Restrictions on pesticide usage and the occurrence of fungicide resistant strains of postharvest pathogens have necessitated research for alternative methods of disease control. Psuedomonas cepacia was tested for control of Botrytis fruit rot in strawberry. Results of field applications of P. cepacia were variable. A compound isolated from P. cepacia, identified as pyrrolnitrin, was as effective as Benlate/captan (2,000 ppm) sprays in field applications. Postharvest pyrrolnitrin (100 ppm) dip inhibited growth of pathogens for three days at room temperature. A pyrrolnitrin dip followed by storage at 1°C for five days extended the shelf-life for another five days. Preharvest pyrrolnitrin sprays to `Bristol' black raspberry delayed rot development by 4 to 5 days. Captan (2,000 ppm) treatment provided no protection. In vitro tests showed that B. cinerea isolated from the fruit had developed resistance to captan. These results suggest that the use of a naturally-produced compound might afford another opportunity to reduce postharvest rots without the use of synthetic fungicides.

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In a 1998-99 survey of the landscape service industry in northern New Jersey, professionals predicted an average growth rate of 41% for the years 1998–2003. How close did their prediction come to the growth rate experienced by the industry? In 1999, top issues facing the industry were labor, political recognition, access to capital and regulations. How did events during the early years of the new millennium effect the industry? Landscape professionals (159) participating in a 2005 study of the industry reported an average business growth rate of 38% from 1998–2003. The terrorist attacks of 11 Sept. 2001 had consequences for 45% of the businesses; 49 experienced an average decrease in sales of 17%. Drought conditions in 2002 with state mandated water use restrictions effected 100 of the participants' businesses; 51% of whom lost an average of 21% in sales. The drought was followed by a rainy spring season in 2003. The rains hindered 57 of the businesses, 22 reporting a 3% average decrease in sales. There were events that had positive impacts on 48% of the businesses. Low interest rates, building construction and renovation and expansion of services were cited as opportunities for growth. The participants ranked environmental regulations, pesticide regulations, the availability of labor, labor regulations and vehicles/equipment as the top issues/challenges facing the industry in 2005. The landscape professionals predict an average business growth rate of 26% for 2005–2010.

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