aspects of border vegetation on highbush blueberry production. Arborvitae ( Thuja occidentalis ) is a popular hedgerow species bordering highbush blueberry fields in the PNW and functions to prevent pesticide drift onto adjacent properties. The primary
Olivia M. Smith, Beverly Gerdeman, Matthew Arrington, Hollis Spitler, and Lisa Wasko DeVetter
Glenn C. Wright and Stephen E. Poe
Arizona Farm Safety Day has been held annually since 2000 as an attempt to educate students and farm workers (pesticide applicators, tractor and equipment operators, irrigators, and field workers) in farm safety. Our programs have emphasized tractor safety, pesticide safety, ATV safety, electrical safety, and firearms safety. The all-day events have been held in Yuma and in Safford, Ariz., and most of the attendees are high school students. Agriculture students from six to eight high schools typically participate. The agenda is determined by consulting with local agriculture leaders. Attendees have the opportunity to attend a 4-hour training session in the morning. Subjects taught at these sessions might include reading a pesticide label, sprayer calibration, wearing proper protection, avoiding spray drift, tractor safety, and farm safety. At least one of these sessions is an outdoors “hands-on” session. Individual participants receive up-to-date information and literature, a certificate of completion, CEUs, CCA credits, a hat, and a lunch. Spanish translation is available at each session. In the afternoon, a tractor driver safety course and equipment demonstration is typically held. In the course, selected representatives from local farms or local youth get a chance to demonstrate their tractor and ATV driving and safety skills for recognition and awards. Plaques and trophies are awarded to the winners. Additionally, there is an equipment demonstration. Attendees are tested before and after the event.
Charles C. Reilly, Michael W. Hotchkiss, and Kathryn C. Taylor
Pesticide application in peach (Prunus persica) orchards with a commercial airblast sprayer was compared to that of an air assisted rotary atomizer (AARA), low-volume sprayer during the 2000 through 2003 seasons. The two technologies were employed during early season petal fall applications, shuck split applications and standard cover sprays using phosmet, sulfur, propiconazole, chlorothalonil, azoxystrobin and captan. Ripe fruit, picked 1 day prior to first harvest each season were rated for peach scab (Cladosporium carpophilum), brown rot (Monilinia fructicola), insect (Hemipteran) damage (cat facing), and blemishes. Differences in brown rot, insect damage, and blemish ratings were not detected between the treatments for each of the four seasons. Differences were detected during the 2000 and 2001 seasons for peach scab, with the AARA sprayer plots having a higher incidence. Spray coverage was quantitatively evaluated with Rhodamine B dye by leaf rinses that indicated there was equivalent coverage for each application method. Phosmet residue detection on trees of the treated rows was also equivalent from each method. Phosmet off-target spray movement (drift) was reduced 59% one row away from the treated row and 93% in the fifth row from the treated row by the AARA sprayer compared to airblast sprayer drift.
Charles L. Wilson, Michael E. Wisniewski, and Bruce L. Upchurch
An apparatus was designed and built to deliver micronized dust particles to the foliage of mature orchard trees under a mobile canopy. The dust is propelled by compressed air (about 1120 kPa), which is pulsed through sand-blast guns using the Bernoulli effect. The canopy consists of steel pipes that support the cover and serve as a conduit for compressed air that flows to the guns. Quick-coupling fittings on the canopy pipes allow for easy attachment and removal of multiple guns at various, optional positions. The support structure for the canopy is attached to a mobile trailer, which transports it over mature orchard trees while the dust is being applied. The canopy reduces drift and enhances the coverage of dusts while they are being applied. This innovative apparatus can be used to apply pesticides, growth promoters and regulators, fertilizers, and biocontrol agents in powdered form. The distribution of corn starch on apple foliage is assessed using this invention.
James P. Gilreath, Carlene A. Chase, and Salvadore J. Locascio
Drift from pesticides can kill or damage nontarget organisms. In these studies, the effects of sublethal rates of the herbicide glyphosate applied prebloom, at bloom, and postbloom of the first flower cluster were evaluated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). As rates increased from 1 to 100 g·ha-1, foliar injury and flower and fruit number per plant varied with the stage of development at the time of exposure and the time of evaluation after treatment. Plants treated with 60 and 100 g·ha-1 glyphosate prebloom and at bloom had developed moderate to severe foliar injury by 14 days after treatment, but phytotoxicity to plants treated postbloom was only mild to moderate. Blooms abscised from plants treated with 60 and 100 g·ha-1 glyphosate for several weeks after application and fruit set was reduced. Greatest yield losses occurred following treatment prebloom (just prior to bloom) and at bloom. Plants treated before emergence of flower buds, and more mature plants exposed when first cluster fruit were sizing, yielded better than did those treated just prior to bloom and at bloom. Chemical name used: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate).
Giuseppe Vanella, Masoud Salyani, Paolo Balsari, Stephen H. Futch, and Roy D. Sweeb
reduction in weed control efficacy of glyphosate applications with low-drift nozzles ( Etheridge et al., 2001 ; Wolf, 2000 ). Different approaches have been adopted to quantify the drift generated during pesticide applications. Salyani and Cromwell (1992
L.T. Case, H.M. Mathers, and A.F. Senesac
Container production has increased rapidly in many parts of the U.S. over the past 15 years. Container production has been the fastest growing sector in the nursery industry and the growth is expected to continue. Weed growth in container-grown nursery stock is a particularly serious problem, because the nutrients, air, and water available are limited to the volume of the container. The extent of damage caused by weeds is often underestimated and effective control is essential. Various researchers have found that as little as one weed in a small (1 gal) pot affects the growth of a crop. However, even if weeds did not reduce growth, a container plant with weeds is a less marketable product than a weed-free product. Managing weeds in a container nursery involves eliminating weeds and preventing their spread in the nursery, and this usually requires chemical controls. However, chemical controls should never be the only management tools implemented. Maximizing cultural and mechanical controls through proper sanitation and hand weeding are two important means to prevent the spread and regeneration of troublesome weeds. Cultural controls include mulching, irrigation methods (subirrigation), and mix type. Nursery growers estimate that they spend $500 to $4000/acre of containers for manual removal of weeds, depending on weed species being removed. Economic losses due to weed infestations have been estimated at approximately $7000/acre. Reduction of this expense with improved weed control methodologies and understanding weed control would have a significant impact on the industry. Problems associated with herbicide use in container production include proper calibration, herbicide runoff concerns from plastic or gravel (especially when chemicals fall between containers) and the need for multiple applications. As with other crops, off-site movement of pesticides through herbicide leaching, runoff, spray drift, and non-uniformity of application are concerns facing nursery growers. This article reviews some current weed control methods, problems associated with these methods, and possible strategies that could be useful for container nursery growers.
Mariano F. Galla, Bradley D. Hanson, and Kassim Al-Khatib
sites to avoid possible drift contamination between single trees. Both sites were sprayed during the time window in which rice growers generally apply their herbicide treatments ( California Department of Pesticide Regulation, 2016 ). In both experiments
Sarah E. Dixon, Jerri L. Henry, Dean S. Volenberg, and Reid J. Smeda
fruiting French-American hybrids to dicamba is of particular interest to Missouri growers because hybrids are the predominant cultivars grown. The movement of dicamba to areas with sensitive grapevines may occur via particle drift or vapor drift. Particle
Lloyd L. Nackley, Brent Warneke, Lauren Fessler, Jay W. Pscheidt, David Lockwood, Wesley C. Wright, Xiaocun Sun, and Amy Fulcher
regardless of the canopy characteristics causing pesticide spray to drift through the open canopies beyond the desired target. In both production systems, the variable-rate spray mode reduced pesticide drift from the first spray application, which was during