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change public policy, whether warranted or not ( Millington and Wilson, 2014 ). Notably, some state and local governments have severely restricted or banned pesticide use on school grounds, public areas, and even home lawns ( Bachand and Gue, 2011 ; Hall

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grounds) not only serve as homes to athletic teams, but are also used as recreation areas for children to play throughout the day. For this reason, a clear understanding of how pesticide bans have changed both grounds maintenance expenses and field quality

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regulations which limit or eliminate pesticide usage on school grounds ( Hurley et al., 2014 ). While regulations vary by state, Connecticut and New York have the most restrictive regulations. In Connecticut, a total ban of pesticides on school grounds from

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et al., 2014 ). Most of the hypothesized theories for pollinator decline have focused on causes such as the loss of native habits, pesticides, diseases, weather, and parasites as significant contributing factors to the general decline of pollinators

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Abstract

An EPA study research project led by three scientists at Colorado State College, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and Colorado Epidemiologic Pesticide Study Center has released the first comprehensive nationwide survey of pesticide injury and illness. Pesticide illnesses occur at the rate of 12 cases per 100,000 applicators, handlers, farmers, and farm workers, or .012%. About two out of three pesticide illnesses were caused by organophosphates. This is an increase among farmers and hired farm workers from 6.7 per 100,000 in 1971 to 11.4 per 100,000 in 1973. This should come as no surprise as the ban on many chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT, etc.) made farmers rely more on the toxic but available organophosphates.

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The U.S. Clean Air Act bans the use of methyl bromide after 2005. Consequently, the development of alternative methods for control of soilborne pathogens is imperative. One alternative is to exploit the pesticidal properties of Brassica L. species. Macerated leaves (10 g) from `Premium Crop' broccoli [B. oleracea L. (Botrytis Group)], `Charmant' cabbage [B. oleracea L. (Capitata Group)], `Michihili Jade Pagoda' Chinese cabbage [B. rapa L. (Pekinensis Group)], `Blue Scotch Curled' kale [B. oleracea L. (Acephala Group)], Indian mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak, unknown cultivar] or `Florida Broadleaf' mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak] were placed in 500-mL glass jars. Petri dishes with either Pythium ultimum Trow or Rhizoctonia solani Kühn plugs on potato-dextrose agar were placed over the jar mouths. Radial growth of both fungi was suppressed most by Indian mustard. Volatiles were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) comprised >90% of the volatiles measured from `Florida Broadleaf' mustard and Indian mustard whereas (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was the predominant compound emitted by the other species. Isothiocyanates were not detected by SPME from `Premium Crop' broccoli and `Blue Scotch Curled' kale although glucosinolates were found in freeze-dried leaves of all species. When exposed to AITC standard, P. ultimum growth was partially suppressed by 1.1 μmol·L-1 (μmol AITC/headspace volume) and completely suppressed by 2.2 μmol·L-1 R. solani was partially suppressed by 1.1, 2.2, and 3.3 μmol·L-1 AITC. Use of Brassica species for control of fungal pathogens is promising; the presence of AITC in both lines of B. juncea suppressed P. ultimum and R. solani but some Brassicas were inhibitory even when isothiocyanates were not detected.

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The development of alternative methods for control of soilborne pathogens is imperative since the U.S. Clean Air Act bans the use of methyl bromide after 2005. One possibility is to exploit the pesticidal properties of compounds released by macerated Brassica tissues. In this study, masked chaffer beetle larvae were placed in sealed 473-mL jars with 335 g of soil amended with 1%, 2%, 4%, or 8% (g·g–1) Brassica tissue. The most prevalent volatile toxic compound of Brassica juncea (PI 458934) is allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). AITC production was measured in the jars at 0.25, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h using a solid-phase microextraction device (SPME) and gas chromatography. After 7 days, larvae mortality was determined. Control treatments included untreated soil, soil amended with 8% tomato plant tissue, soil amended with pure AITC, and untreated soil with an atmosphere of ≈20% O2 and 0% CO2 changing over 48 h to 2% O2 and 20% CO2. AITC levels were positively correlated to larvae mortality. The estimated lethal concentration for 50% kill (LC50) was 3.6 μg AITC/L soil atmosphere. AITC levels may be influenced by Brassica mass added, soil bulk density, and environmental factors including temperature and moisture. B. juncea has a high tissue AITC concentration. However, the mass of Brassica tissue required for insecticidal application against Cyclocephala sp. is also high, between 4% and 8% of soil mass. Development and selection of Brassica species that produce higher concentrations of isothiocyanate would increase the effectiveness of Brassica biofumigation as an alternative to methyl bromide for controlling soilborne insects.

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public policies which ban the use of cosmetic pesticide applications and favor the adoption of lawn alternatives ( Vickers, 2006 ), including organically managed green spaces ( Alumai et al., 2008 ). Although organic management programs are offered as an

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., 1997 ; Pimentel et al., 1992 ). New laws banning or restricting pesticide use on school properties, coupled with budget reductions, have severely reduced the ability of turfgrass managers to manage pests ( Miller and Henderson, 2012 ). Sports fields

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many feel pesticides are “harmful” when being applied in close proximity to public buildings, schools, and homes ( Arya, 2005 ). Many provinces in Canada began banning or highly restricting the use of nonessential or “cosmetic” pesticides in the 1990s

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