emission spectrometer (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA). Determination of the tea quality indicators. The compositions of tea polyphenols and caffeine in leaves were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (SPD-20A; SHIMADZU, Kyoto, Japan) analysis
Fei Xiong, Jieren Liao, Yuanchun Ma, Yuhua Wang, Wanping Fang, and Xujun Zhu
Robert L. Mikkelsen
practices requires selection of performance indicators and deciding what to measure. The most common measurements have traditionally been profitability and productivity, but sustainability and environmental health must also be addressed ( Fig. 1 ). The
Ben Wherley, Ambika Chandra, Anthony Genovesi, Mason Kearns, Tim Pepper, and Jim Thomas
, 1973 ; Stier and Gardner, 2008 ); however, there is limited published information pertaining to comparative shade tolerance of st. augustinegrass. Trenholm and Nagata (2005) compared performance of five st. augustinegrass cultivars in mild to
Xuan Wei, Hayk Khachatryan, and Alicia Rihn
production practice be economically feasible? By presenting cost estimates and primary economic performance indicators for selected individual annual bedding and perennial crops, we illustrated a great deal of variability in production costs and profitability
Robin G. Brumfield and Peter F. McSweeney
A 1995 study of 22 Australian nurseries 1) developed a profile of production, management, and profitability; 2) compared their performance to relevant U.S. benchmarks; and 3) identified trends and potential areas of improvement in the management of Australian nursery enterprises. The study confirmed that Australian nurseries incur high labor costs (38.8% of sales) comparable to United States nurseries, while costs of materials and supplies were lower than in the United States. Australian managers were concerned with marketing and recruiting and keeping labor rather than increasing capital investment to enhance production efficiency. Capital expenditures were funded from internal cash flow rather than external financing. Many of the nursery managers used relatively simple performance indicators, and most business objectives were stated in general terms. Concerns about the viability of the industry included oversupply, the growth in chain stores' business, factors eroding the demand for nursery products, and greater regulation.
Pinghai Ding*, Jessica M. Cortell, and Leslie H. Fuchigami
Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrition factors affecting grapevine growth performance and berry quality. Leaf pigments contents and leaf areas are the important indicators of grapevine nitrogen status and plant performance. In order to find a efficient way to nondestructively measure leaf nitrogen and pigments status, the SPAD meter, CCM-200 and CM-1000 chlorophyll meter in comparisons with FOSS NIR system were used in measuring leaf nitrogen, leaf chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins in 7-year-old Pinot Noir grape with different rate of N treatments. The results indicate that the reading of all these meters have a good relationship with leaf N, leaf chlorophyll and leaf area. But the accuracy among these meters was different, in which the accuracy of FOSS NIR is better than that of the SPAD meter, CCM-200 and CM-1000. There is the good relationship between leaf nitrogen contents, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. Flavonoids and anthocyanins have the inverse relationship with leaf N contents and leaf area. FOSS NIR system can be use for nondestructive assessing nitrogen, leaf chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins whereas the other meters can only used for nondestructive assessing leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll. These results indicate it is possible to use nondestructive spectral methods as the precision viticulture tools to manage vineyards nitrogen fertilization and grapevine performance.
S.R. Henss, J.M. Zajicek, and R.D. Lineberger
Performance of college-level floral design students was compared using a sample of 140 students from Texas A&M University. The experimental group was enrolled in the online version of the course, while the control group was enrolled in the traditional version of the course. Students in both groups were asked to fill out surveys at the beginning and end of the semester. In addition, student floral designs were evaluated at the beginning and end of the semester, and student grades were compared at the end of the semester. No statistically significant differences were noted in terms of student course satisfaction. However, differences were noted in course grades, with those enrolled in the traditional section of the course outperforming those in the online section. Overall, the students in both sections of the course did well in terms of grades, floral design skill scores, and course satisfaction. Results indicated that certain student characteristics may be indicators for student success in online courses.
Robin G. Brumfield and Peter F. McSweeney
We surveyed 22 Australian nurseries in 1995 to: 1) develop a profile of Australian nurseries from a production, management, and profitability perspective; 2) compare the data to relevant U.S. benchmarks; and 3) identify trends and potential areas of improvement in the management of Australian nursery enterprises. The study confirmed that Australian nurseries incur high labor costs (38.8% of sales) that are comparable to United States nurseries, while costs of materials and supplies were lower than their U.S. counterparts. Overall, the costs of the surveyed nurseries appeared lower than their U.S. counterparts. Concerns of managers were directed towards recruiting and keeping labor and marketing rather than increasing capital investment to increase production efficiency. Capital expenditures tended to be funded from internal cash flows rather than external borrowings. Many of the nursery managers used relatively simple performance indicators and most business objectives were stated in general terms. Australian nurseries carried more diverse product ranges than the U.S. nurseries. Many of the nurseries adopted quite vigorous marketing strategies with a stronger emphasis on marketing than in those in the U.S. Concerns about the viability of the industry included oversupply, the growth in chain stores business, factors eroding the demand for nursery products and greater regulation.
Burhan Ozkan, Robin G. Brumfield, and Osman Karaguzel
Turkish cut-flower exports grew from about $100,000 in 1985 to $11 million in 1995 (not adjusted for inflation). Since this is a growing industry in Turkey, we wanted to examine the production structure and main problems of export-oriented contract growers. We surveyed 33 cut-flower export growers and 30 contract growers between May and July 1997. We conducted the survey in the Antalya province, which is the center of the export-oriented cut-flower production in Turkey. The results indicate that cut-flower companies were not highly mechanized, but did use computerized accounting systems. Transportation of cut flowers to foreign markets was the largest expense item in the cut-flower industry. Despite a high rate of unemployment, cut-flower companies face difficulties in obtaining and keeping qualified employees. Managers tended not to use specific performance indicators such as sales per employee or sales per square foot relevant to the cut-flower industry. The most common method for arranging cut-flower export sales was personal contact with the importers. Contracts between firms which grew and exported flowers and smaller contract growers were common, but some problems existed concerning quality and financial obligations. Growers are using fewer commission contracts and are instead opting to sell on a fixed-price basis. The main concerns raised by managers were related to increased competition, price-cutting, transportation expenses for export, training, and labor supply.
Lesley A. Judd, Brian E. Jackson, William C. Fonteno, and Jean-Christophe Domec
. 199 452 463 Domec, J.-C. Schafer, K. Oren, R. Kim, H.S. McCarthy, H.R. 2010 Variable conductivity and embolism in roots and branches of four contrasting tree species and their impacts on whole-plant hydraulic performance under future atmospheric CO 2