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in strawberry and can severely limit the development of runners in matted row systems ( Pritts and Kelly, 2001 ). Controlling weeds is especially vital during the establishment year (planting to first harvest) and between harvests in perennial

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before treatment establishment (in 1996) showed a pH of 6.4 and 2.8% organic matter in the site where strawberry plants were continuously grown in a matted-row system from 1986 to 1995. Treatment plots were established 22 May 1996 in a randomized complete

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, the matted-row perennial system is more popular with spring planting and fruit harvesting the years thereafter ( Galletta and Swartz, 1984 ; Hokanson and Finn, 2000 ; Stevens et al., 2009 ; Yao et al., 2009 ). Stevens et al. (2006 , 2007 , 2009

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North America with PYO strawberry operations have typically used the conventional matted row production system. Some growers have tested a cold-climate plasticulture system that is thought to offer better weed control and improved fruit size and quality

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Weed management continues to be a major challenge for strawberry growers who plant in the traditional matted-row production system where mother plants are set in spring and daughter plants fill in the rows over the first growing season ( Hancock et

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In the perennial strawberry production system, removal of the harvested crop represents a loss of nitrogen (N) that may be influenced by cultivar. Eight strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) cultivars and eight numbered selections grown in advanced matted row culture were compared over three seasons for removal of N in the harvested crop. Replicated plots were established in 1999, 2000, and 2001 and fruited the following year. `Allstar', `Cavendish', `Earliglow', `Honeoye', `Jewel', `Northeaster', `Ovation', and `Latestar' and selections B37, B51, B244-89, B683, B753, B781, B793, and B817 were compared for yield and fruit N concentration. Harvest removal of N (HRN) was calculated from total season yield and fruit N concentration at peak harvest. There were significant differences in HRN among genotypes, ranging from 1.80 to 2.96 g N per meter of row for numbered selections B781 and B37, respectively. Among cultivars, HRN ranged from 2.01 to 3.56 g·m–1 for `Ovation' and `Jewel', respectively. The amount of HRN was largely determined by yield, however, there were also significant genotype differences in fruit N concentration, ranging from 0.608 to 0.938 mg N per gram fresh weight for B244-89 and `Jewel', respectively. These differences indicate that N losses in the harvested crop are genotype dependent.

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The strawberry bud weevil (Anthonomus signatus Say; clipper) is considered to be a serious early-season pest in perennial matted row strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne) plantings in North America. Adult females damage flower buds in early spring by depositing an egg in the bud, then clipping the bud from the pedicel. Action thresholds are low (two clipped buds/meter of row) because pest managers and growers have assumed that one clipped flower bud results in the loss of one average-sized fruit. Fields with a history of clipper damage are often treated with insecticides during the first period of warm weather that coincides with inflorescence development, without scouting for clipped buds or evaluating damage. We examined 12 strawberry cultivars and found that most can compensate for a significant amount of flower bud loss, provided that the loss occurs early in the development of the inflorescence. A new threshold is proposed in which the potential loss of fruit per inflorescence is considered, along with the total number of severely damaged inflorescences. We believe that in most circumstances and with most cultivars, clipper injury will remain below the damage threshold.

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Black root rot is a serious disease of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) that causes the death of feeder roots, the degradation and blackening of structural roots, and an overall decrease in plant vigor and productivity. The causal organisms of black root rot are Rhizoctonia fragariae, Pythium sp. and Pratylenchus penetrans (the root lesion nematode). Each organism alone can cause extensive damage to strawberry roots, but studies have shown that black root rot may be more severe when all organisms are present, indicating there is an interaction between the fungal organisms and the nematode. The current method of control for black root rot is methyl-bromide fumigation; however, methyl bromide is to be phased out by 2005, and it is not very effective in perennial matted-row systems. The objectives of the study are to measure levels of tolerance to black root rot in 21 strawberry genotypes. The genotypes were planted in four blocks each of methyl-bromide fumigated and non-fumigated soil, and were evaluated for crown, runner, and inflorescence number; yield; average berry weight; and root health. `Cavendish', `Kent', `Midway' and `Winona' showed the highest degree of tolerance, while `Jewel', `Mesabi', and LH50-4 (a F. virginiana genotype) were the poorest performers.

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. The conventional matted row system (CMR) is a perennial system and has been the primary method for strawberry production in these regions for much of the past century. More recently, cold-climate plasticulture (CCP) ( http

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early season, offering growers an alternative to ‘Annapolis’ with good fruit quality and yield. Plants of ‘Wendy’ are vigorous, resembling ‘Evangeline’ in habit, and they produce ample runners to establish matted rows. In greenhouse screening with

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