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Ellen Sullivan Bennett and James E. Swasey

The negative effects of the urban situation on human well-being are well documented, contribute to stress, weaken coping skills, and evoke a negative self-appraisal from residents continually surrounded by bleak settings (Stainbrook, 1973). The following research suggests that urban residents may visit public gardens as a means of coping with the stresses of city life. Results of a survey of urban visitors to two urban public gardens indicate that stress reduction is an important reason for visiting the gardens. The research also indicates a trend of reduced levels of self-perceived stress after a garden visit.

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Jemma L. Hawkins, Kathryn J. Thirlaway, Karianne Backx, and Deborah A. Clayton

perceived stress levels, depending on whether they offered opportunities for being outdoors, increased social support, and contact with nature. In particular, it was hypothesized that the members of the activities that offered more of these opportunities

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Tina Bringslimark, Terry Hartig, and Grete Grindal Patil

the other hand. Two of the outcomes selected for study here, sick leave and productivity, can plausibly be attributed, at least in part, to chronic stress resulting from workplace demands. Another outcome studied here, perceived stress, is thus

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James J. Luby and Douglas V. Shaw

flavor, color, shape, size, degree of damage, and nutrient levels. Janick (2005) stressed that several important quality improvements such as supersweet maize types, Sugarsnap-type peas, seedless watermelon, and “Gold” pineapple caused enhanced demand

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Tammy Kohlleppel, Jennifer Campbell Bradley, and Steve Jacob

Stress has been characterized as an epidemic and has been found to play an important role in causing many diseases. In contrast, people often seek out nature and green spaces to help cope with life stress. Botanic gardens provide opportunities for people to immerse in nature, explore their horticultural interests, and experience recreation and leisure. The literature suggests that all of these activities are effective coping strategies against life stress. This study explored the effectiveness of botanic garden visits as a coping strategy. The findings of this study suggest that botanic gardens could be a place for coping with the effects of stress. Botanic garden visitation, along with gender, stressful life events, perceived health, and selfesteem, was found to be important in explaining reported levels of depression. Data also showed that visitors who received the most benefit of stress reduction were those most needing a coping strategy.

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Angela L. Goin

The purpose of this research was to measure relationships between preference types of employees and their respective job classifications in public horticulture. Preference type is the way people prefer to look at the external world, perceive information, make decisions, and live a lifestyle. Improved employee interpersonal relations and productivity, and decreased stress and conflict may result from understanding preference types. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator was used to determine preference types at Longwood Gardens, and at Morris, Scott, and Tyler arboreta. According to this research, a correlation exists between preference types and job classifications. In addition, when job classification preferences were compared to each other, they showed areas of potential conflict and miscommunication. In conclusion, my data generally agree with the general preference type theory.

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G.E. Jones and B.M. Cregg

Conifers represent a sizeable portion of nursery and landscape sales in the upper midwestern U.S. Several conifer species have been overplanted to the point where disease problems and insect pressures have developed. Although more than 40 true fir (Abies Mill.) exist throughout the northern hemisphere, use of firs in the landscape and Christmas tree industry has been limited to relatively few species. This is largely due to perceived intolerance of many site conditions. However, recent research suggests Abies are more tolerant of varying site conditions than originally thought. Successful introduction of new exotic fir species for landscape use will require a systematic approach to identify species that are adapted to environmental stresses. In this article we review the extent and nature of inter-specific variation among Abies species in traits commonly associated with tolerance of stresses found in the upper midwestern U.S. Specifically, we focus on cold hardiness, budbreak, photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations, and response to soil pH. It is important to match plants possessing necessary adaptive characteristics with the existing site conditions. Therefore, multiple screening factors should be met when identifying species or trees from different provenances for future introduction.

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A-Young Lee, Seon-Ok Kim, and Sin-Ae Park

= 400), “psychological stability and stress reduction” (20.9%, N = 236), and “leisure and hobbies” (16.2%, N = 183) ( Table 2 ). In addition to these common reasons from both genders, male students anticipated improving their “physical fitness” (14.4%, N

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Rukundo Placide, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, and Daphrose Gahakwa

change aggravates the biotic and abiotic stresses on food crops ( Tester and Langridge, 2010 ). These environmental changes will negatively affect crop production and food security. Therefore, novel mitigation strategies are required to boost crop

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Laura A. Warner, Amanda D. Ali, and Anil Kumar Chaudhary

irrigation behaviors, and therefore, extension professionals should stress perceived benefits that are most influential on behavior while emphasizing that landscape management best practices are compatible with those benefits residents value most. For example