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Ao Liu, Jibiao Fan, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Liang Chen, and Jinmin Fu

) observed that NO was efficient to protect sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) plant against Cd-induced oxidative stress. Besides, NO was also able to alleviate the damage effects of ultraviolet-B radiation ( Santa-Cruz et al., 2010 ). Furthermore, NO was

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Huai-Fu Fan, Chang-Xia Du, and Shi-Rong Guo

and Savouré, 2009 ). In addition, the intermediates of Pro metabolism induce gene expression and reduce oxidation injuries from osmotic stress ( Hong et al., 2000 ). Although Pro-inducible genes have been identified ( Satoh et al., 2002 ), the

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Yeh-Jin Ahn and Na-Hyun Song

All living organisms synthesize a group of proteins called heat shock proteins (HSPs) when exposed to elevated temperatures or other abiotic stresses such as cold, salinity, drought, oxidation, and heavy metals ( Vierling, 1991 ). These proteins are

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Haiyan Zhang

seed germination, and thereby plant establishment, on saline soils. Salt stress can impose both ionic toxicity and osmotic stress on plants, which lead to nutritional imbalance and oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) ( Zhu, 2003

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Zhongjie Ji, James J. Camberato, Cankui Zhang, and Yiwei Jiang

photosynthetic efficiency, and increased oxidative injury ( Parihar et al., 2015 ). Plants can adjust metabolism to cope with salinity stress. This includes, but is not limited to, accumulation of water-soluble sugars and organic acids for osmotic adjustment

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Kanogwan Kerdnaimongkol, Anju Bhatia, Robert J. Joly, and William R. Woodson

107 POSTER SESSION (Abstr. 465–478) Stress–Cold Temperatures

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Hee-Geun Park, Ki-Cheol Son, Dae-Sik Kim, and Wang-Lok Lee

novel risk factors such as inflammation ( Mora et al., 2007 ) and oxidative stress ( Schjerve et al., 2008 ). Gardening activities are considered low- to moderate-intensity physical activities in the older population ( Park et al., 2011 , 2012 , 2014a

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Ann Fitzpatrick and Paul H. Jennings

78 ORAL SESSION 13 (Abstr. 084–091) Stress–Cold Temperatures

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Kanogwan Kerdnaimongkol, Anju Bhatia, Robert J. Joly, and William R. Woodson

Diurnal variation in the chilling sensitivity of `Rutgers' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings was examined. Chilling sensitivity was highest in seedlings chilled at the end of the dark period, and these seedlings became more resistant to chilling injury on exposure to the light. The development of chilling tolerance in tomato seedlings was a response to light and not under the control of a circadian rhythm. The recovery of leaf gas exchange following chilling was faster in seedlings chilled at the end of the light period. Diurnal variation in chilling sensitivity was associated with changes in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. An increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities was observed at the end of the light period. Catalase activity was significantly higher in all stages of chilling following the light period compared to those chilled after the end of the dark period. Forty-eight hours of 14 °C acclimation or pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide conferred increased chilling tolerance to tomato seedlings. Hydrogen peroxide-treated seedlings showed little evidence of a diurnal variation in chilling sensitivity. These results support a role for light and oxidative stress in conferring increased chilling tolerance to tomato seedlings.

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Kanogwan Kerdnaimongkol and William R. Woodson

Transgenic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Ohio 8245') expressing an antisense catalase gene (ASTOMCAT1) were used to test the hypothesis that modification of the reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanism in plants can lead to changes in oxidative stress tolerance. A 2- to 8-fold reduction in total catalase activity was detected in the leaf extracts of transformants. A 2-fold increase in levels of H2O2 was observed in the transgenic plants with reduced catalase activity. Electrophoretic characterization of multiple catalase isoforms revealed the specific suppression of CAT1 in transgenic plants. Homozygous plants carrying the antisense catalase transgene were used to study the effect of alteration in the expression of catalase on stress tolerance. Transgenic plants treated with 3% H2O2 showed visible damage within 24 hours and subsequently died. In contrast, wild-type and azygous control plants recovered from the treatment. Transgenic plants did not survive 4 °C chilling stress compared to control wild-type and azygous lines. Physiological analysis of these plants indicated that suppression of catalase activity in transgenic tomato led to enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress. Our data support a role for catalase in oxidative stress defense system in tomato.