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Andrea Luvisi, Alessandra Panattoni, Roberto Bandinelli, Enrico Rinaldelli, Mario Pagano, Barbara Gini, Giorgio Manzoni, and Enrico Triolo

have interesting applications in ornamental shrubs such as roses due to their high market value, wide distribution, and relative phytosanitarian certification ( Krczal, 1998 ). Some potential applications of RFID techniques could include procedures for

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Julián Miralles-Crespo, María J. Sánchez-Blanco, Alejandra Navarro G., Juan J. Martínez-Sánchez, Jose A. Franco L., and Sebastián Bañón A.

focused on fruit trees, in which they have found practical application in irrigation scheduling ( Fereres and Goldhamer, 2003 ; García-Orellana et al., 2007 ; Nortes et al., 2005 ). Fewer studies in this respect have been carried out in ornamental shrubs

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E.C. Boehm, T.D. Davis, and J.O. Kuti

Relative water usage of four species of container-grown woody ornamental shrubs (Buxus japonica (Japenese boxwood), Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas sage), Ligustrum japonica (ligustrum) and Pittosporum tobira wheeleri (dwarf) pittosporurm)), normally used for home landscaping in south Texas, were evaluated by comparing water consumption and frequency of watering with growth rates and horticultural quality after six months growth in containers. Growth rates were determined by the difference in plant height and leaf area from the control unwatered plants and were used to characterize the suitability of ornamental shrubs for xeric landscapes. While frequency of watering had no significant effects on plant height, only ligustrum and dwarf pittosporum plants watered on weekly basis showed positive change in leaf area. There was considerable leaf regrowth in Texas sage plants after initial leaf loss. Of all the shrubs tested, dwarf pittosporum plants watered biweekly used less water to maintain their horticultural quality.

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Christopher B. Kindred and J.M. Zajicek

Survivability of ornamental landscape plants during transport and the early stages of transplanting is a concern of the nursery and landscape industries. An effective antitranspirant may help avoid unnecessary plant losses during these periods of plant stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new experimental antitranspirant on whole-plant transpiration of two ornamental landscape shrubs. Plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Photinia ×fraseri were treated with the experimental antitranspirant N2001. Treatment rates included: 0% (as a control), 10%, 12.5%, or 15%. All treatments were mixed as a percentage of N2001 in a given volume of reverse osmosis water and applied to the roots as a drench. Whole-plant transpiration was determined gravimetrically by weighing the plants daily. Stem-flow gauges further monitored daily water use on an hourly basis. At the termination of the experiment, leaf areas and leaf dry weights were determined. Application of the antitranspirant reduced whole-plant transpiration immediately for all treated plants compared to that of control plants. On day 1, the 10%, 12.5%, and 15% treatments significantly reduced whole-plant transpiration levels by 41%, 50%, and 62%, respectively, compared to untreated plants. On day 3 and 4, the antitranspirant was still effective, reducing whole-plant transpiration by 47% and 24% on average, respectively, compared to untreated plants. By day five there were no significant differences in whole-plant transpiration between any treatment. Differences in whole plant transpiration can be attributed to antitranspirant application due to lack of differences in leaf area, dry weight or leaf area ratio between any treatment.

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Calvin Chong and R.A. Cline

Four deciduous ornamental shrubs {`Coral Beauty' cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri C.K. Schneid.), `Flaviramea' dogwood (Cornus sericea L.), `Lynwood' forsythia (Forsythia ×intermedia Zab.), and `Variegata' weigela [Weigela florida (Bunge) A. DC.]} were grown in trickle-irrigated containers with 100% pine bark (control) or with 10 other pine-bark-amended media, including two sources [Noranda Forest (NF) and Quebec and Ontario (QO)] of raw paper mill sludge mixed at 15 % or 30% (by volume). All species grew equally well or better in the sludge-amended media than in the control or other nonsludge media. Cotoneaster and forsythia grew more in NF sludge media than in corresponding QO media due primarily to the greater quantities of N and other nutrients released from the NF sludge.

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C. Richer-Leclerc and J.-A. Rioux

159 WORKSHOP 25 Contributions of Canadian Agriculture to the Introduction, Evaluation, and Testing of Woody Ornamental Trees and Shrubs for Use in Plant Breed Programs

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Amy L. Shober, Kimberly A. Moore, Nancy G. West, Christine Wiese, Gitta Hasing, Geoffrey Denny, and Gary W. Knox

sacrificing plant growth and quality. Materials and methods Plant materials and experimental design. Three ornamental shrub species (‘Alba’ indian hawthorn, sweet viburnum, and ‘RADrazz’ rose) were selected for evaluation across a range of N fertilization

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Yulia A. Kuzovkina, Michael Dodge, and Irina V. Belyaeva

Willows ( Salix L.) are grown widely in many temperate countries because of their notable characteristics that include rapid growth rate, ornamental appearance, and easy vegetative propagation ( Dickmann and Kuzovkina, 2014 ). Salix gracilistyla

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A.L. Shober, C. Wiese, G.C. Denny, C.D. Stanley, and B.K. Harbaugh

suggest that all substrates examined as part of this study provided acceptable growth and would be suitable for use during the commercial production of ornamental landscape shrubs. Leachate N loads. Substrate effects on mean NO 3 + NO 2 –N loads leached

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Jinggui Fang, Jianjun Chen, Richard J. Henny, and Chih-Cheng T. Chao

The genus Ficus , commonly referred to as fig, belongs to the family Moraceae and encompasses about 800 species ( Corner, 1965 ; Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorum, 1976 ). Figs are woody trees, shrubs, climbers, or hemiepiphytic stranglers native to