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Genhua Niu, Pedro Osuna, Youping Sun, and Denise S. Rodriguez

growth, Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons were performed. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS software (Version 9.1.3; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Seedling emergence of ornamental chile peppers (Expt. 2) To determine whether the

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Hans C. Wien

screening process to be imposed during the seedling stage, and the resulting effects to be observed under field conditions thereafter, as was reported by Blacquière et al. (2002) . We used this methodology to expose seedlings of 59 sunflower cultivars

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Heidi Marie Wollaeger and Erik S. Runkle

may not necessarily apply to plant growth over time, because plants acclimate to their light environment. We grew seedlings of ornamental plants at two PPF s under different ratios of R (peak = 634 nm) and HR (peak = 664 nm) light, as well as under

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M.R. Evans and G. Li

The annual bedding plants `Dazzler Rose Star' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana), `Cooler Blush' vinca (Catharanthus roseus), `Orbit Cardinal' geranium (Pelargonium × hotorum), `Janie Bright Yellow' marigold (Tagetes patula) and `Bingo Azure' pansy (Viola tricolor) were grown on germination papers treated with deionized water (DI), 2500 or 5000 mg·L-1 (ppm) humic acid (HA) or nutrient control (NC) solutions. Seedlings grown on HA-treated germination papers had higher dry root weights than those grown on DI or NC-treated germination papers. Except for impatiens, seedlings germinated on HA-treated germination papers had higher lateral root numbers and higher total lateral root lengths than those grown on DI and NC-treated germination papers. Impatiens grown on NC-treated germination papers had higher lateral root numbers than those grown on DI or HA-treated germination papers. Overall, lateral root numbers for impatiens were higher for seedlings germinated on HA-treated papers than DI or NC-treated papers and highest lateral root numbers occurred on those impatiens germinated on papers treated with 5000 mg·L-1 HA. Except for geranium, seedlings grown in HA-amended sphagnum-peat-based substrates had similar dry root and dry shoot weights as those grown in unamended substrates. Geranium seedlings grown in HA-amended sphagnum peat-based substrates had significantly higher dry root weights than those grown in unamended substrates. However, dry shoot weights of geranium grown in HA-amended sphagnum peat-based substrates were similar to those grown in unamended substrates.

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Rick A. Boydston, Treva Anderson, and Steven F. Vaughn

Morra, 2005 ). Thiocyanate ion is water-soluble and is likely carried to the vicinity of shallow germinating weed seedlings by watering. The tolerance of transplanted ornamentals to surface-applied MSM is likely the result of both the placement of MSM

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Renwei Huang, Daofeng Liu, Min Zhao, Zhineng Li, Mingyang Li, and Shunzhao Sui

larger reproductive and vegetative organs, a more compact growth habit and a higher tolerance to environmental stress ( Grouh et al., 2011 ). Moreover, polyploidy has been used in horticulture as a breeding tool to enhance ornamental characteristics, and

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Neil O. Anderson and Richard T. Olsen

by pollinators or wind. As such, grow-outs required selection of off-types at the seedling or transplant stages, if possible. This practice is still in use with ornamental seed crops that are OP, e.g., Capsicum annuum , Dahlia variabilis

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Nichole F. Edelman and Michelle L. Jones

Ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) is a gaseous hormone that is produced by plants during growth and development and in response to environmental stress ( Abeles et al., 1992 ). At the seedling stage, ethylene causes reduced hypocotyl elongation, increased

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John M. Ruter

, american robins are often present in late February to early March (J.M. Ruter, personal observation). Numerous seedlings can be found germinating under trees of the species or in urban areas (Dirr, 1998; Gilman and Watson, 2006 ). Godfrey (1988

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Clara E. Trueblood, Thomas G. Ranney, Nathan P. Lynch, Joseph C. Neal, and Richard T. Olsen

The genus Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae Jussieu) contains ≈400 species of small trees, shrubs, and herbs, including many ornamental plants that are grown for their attractive, yellow flowers and brown to dark red berries and capsules ( Huxley et al