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Touria E. Eaton, Douglas A. Cox, and Allen V. Barker

organic media, fertilizers, and pest management methods for greenhouse crops. Organic media are available in the market, and pest management practices using organic pesticides and biological control agents are being established. However, cultural

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Vincent M. Russo and Merritt Taylor

whether production is with conventional or alternative methods, it is necessary that systems be developed that are applicable to specific regions. Synthetic fertilizers cannot be used in organic production. There are several materials derived from organic

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T.K. Hartz, R. Smith, and M. Gaskell

potential for water quality degradation from high phosphorus (P) loading ( Sharpley et al., 1994 ). Dry organic fertilizers such as fishery waste, feather meal, and seabird guano are widely used; these products have high N content (>10% of dry weight) and

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Juan Carlos Diaz-Perez, W. Keith Jenkins, Dharmalingam Pitchay, and Gunawati Gunawan

systems that allow for precise and readily nutrient availability ( Russo, 2005 ). Organic transplant production typically involves incorporating an organic fertilizer or amendment into the substrate. The effects of the organic fertilizers on vegetable seed

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Zhengli Zhai, David L. Ehret, Tom Forge, Tom Helmer, Wei Lin, Martine Dorais, and Athanasios P. Papadopoulos

Organic production methods encourage the use of organic waste materials as substitutes for chemical fertilizers. This may be an effective way to use the high volumes of urban yard waste and waste organic materials emanating from dairy, poultry

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Joji Muramoto, Richard F. Smith, Carol Shennan, Karen M. Klonsky, James Leap, Miriam Silva Ruiz, and Stephen R. Gliessman

soil organic matter, compost, recently incorporated crop and cover crop residues, and various organic fertilizers. Cover crops can provide an inexpensive source of N for crop production ( Smith, in press ; Wyland et al., 1996 ). Use of a legume

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Wendy A. Johnson, Raymond A. Cloyd, James R. Nechols, Kimberly A. Williams, Nathan O. Nelson, Dorith Rotenberg, and Megan M. Kennelly

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient that crops require for growth and development ( Jones, 1998 ; Raven and Smith, 1976 ). The availability and form of N may vary depending on fertilizer type. Organic fertilizers, which are derived from natural

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George E. Boyhan, Ray J. Hicks, Reid L. Torrance, Cliff M. Riner, and C. Randell Hill

production and different fertilizer sources, it was found that onion and bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) seedlings required additional time in the greenhouse to obtain sufficient size before transplanting when using organic media and fertilizer ( Russo, 2005

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Natalie Yoder and Jessica G. Davis

Nitrogen (N), a limiting nutrient in all agricultural systems, can be difficult to manage in certified organic vegetable production. Organic agriculture relies heavily on fertilizers and soil amendments from off-farm sources such as fish emulsion

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Guihong Bi, William B. Evans, James M. Spiers, and Anthony L. Witcher

the growing interest in managing the environmental impacts of agriculture have led to the development of organic and natural fertilizers that may be suitable for commercial use. Many of these fertilizers are byproducts of livestock, fish, and food and