antioxidants linked to inhibiting cancers such as prostate ( Giovannucci et al., 1995 ), skin ( Gonzalez et al., 2003 ), and colon ( Slattery et al., 1999 ). Organic acids, such as malic and citric, and soluble sugars, such as fructose and glucose, contribute
between light exposure and organic acid biosynthesis by both immature and mature berries has been reported ( DeBolt et al., 2006 , 2007 ; Kliewer and Schultz, 1964 ) and showed that full sun exposure resulted in maximum levels of tartaric acid formation
during winter months negated that possibility ( Johnson and Davis, 2014 ; Johnson et al., 2012 ). Pelargonic acid might provide a specialized niche in organic Vidalia ® sweet onion production if control of emerged early season weeds is better and more
, 2014 ; Horvat and Senter, 1985 ), blueberries also contain different organic acids, including citric, quinic, malic, and succinic acids that contribute to their unique flavor ( Ehlenfeldt et al., 1994 ). Moreover, they are also known for the rich
et al., 2011 ). Cluster roots are characterized to release organic acid anions at a high level, and citrate is demonstrated to be the predominant acid released by cluster roots of tobacco under a K-deficient condition ( Wu et al., 2013 ). Collectively
China is 7 million kilograms, which is primarily used for producing wine, juice, jam, and preserved products ( Zong et al., 2011 ). Anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenols, and organic acids in V. uliginosum fruit show various biological properties
ripening is mostly a result of the accumulation of fructose and glucose ( Kafkas et al., 2006 ; Perkins-Veazie et al., 2000 ; Wrolstad et al., 1980 ). Isocitric, lactoisocitric, and malic acids make up the bulk of organic acids in blackberry; however, the
to yield high quality, nutritious fruit, in addition to optimum production. Therefore, in the present study, we focused on the impact of different rates of N fertilization on fruit quality including organic acid, TSS, TA, total phenolic content
Concentrations of the major sugars and organic acids within ripe ‘Charleston Gray’ and ‘Jubilee’ watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] flesh were quantified in 5 different regions. The percentage of soluble solids (%SS) in both cultivars and the percentage of sucrose in ‘Charleston Gray’ were highest in the heart region, followed by the blossom end, and lowest in the stem end. Glucose, malic acid, and citric acid were generally higher in the heart and blossom end compared to the stem end, while fructose was higher in the blossom end than stem end. No significant differences between the top side and the soil side were found for any of the sugars or organic acids. Fructose was the major sugar in all regions in ‘Jubilee’, whereas the major sugar in ‘Charleston Gray’ (sucrose or fructose) depended on the region. Malic acid was the primary organic acid in all regions of both cultivars.
The fruit of six highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars and eight rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) cultivars and selections were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography for levels of the commonly found organic acids, citric, malic, succinic, and quinic. The two cultivar groups possessed distinctive patterns of relative organic acid proportions that could unambiguously separate pure rabbiteye and highbush clones in a principal component analysis. Highbush clones were characterized by high citric acid content, with percentages averaging 75% (range 38% to 90%). Succinic acid was the second most plentiful acid, averaging 17%. In contrast, rabbiteye cultivars and selections contained 10% citric acid, and no clone had >22%. Succinic acid and malic acid were found in greater quantities than in highbush, averaging 50% and 34%, respectively. Analysis of the fruit of seven albino-fruited highbush selections exhibited a profile similar to standard highbush cultivars, but with a citric acid average of <50%, and proportionally greater amounts of succinic and quinic acids. Given the differences in sensory quality of these four acids, it is likely that acid partitioning patterns can largely account for some of the perceived flavor differences between rabbiteye and highbush blueberries. Because several current breeding efforts involve hybridization between highbush and rabbiteye blueberries, a consideration of acid composition of breeding parents maybe worthwhile.