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Department of Food and Agriculture ( CDFA) 2021 ]. Almond ( Prunus dulcis ) and walnut ( Juglans regia ) account for more than 1.6 million acres of this crop sector ( CDFA 2021 ). Weed management is a critical challenge for orchard growers, although the

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Tree growth and nutrition were unaffected by orchard floor management system (OFMS) treatments except for foliar nitrogen concentration, which was higher with alfalfa mulch. Trees grafted on Supporter 4 were the most vigorous. There was a

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Orchard floor management (OFM) greatly affects tree health and performance by altering nutrient and water dynamics. As sustainable agriculture practices become the convention, there is a growing need for decision tools that can assist land

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Commun. Soil Sci. Plan. 32 521 536 Goh, K.M. Tutua, S.S. 2004 Effects of organic and plant residue quality and orchard management practices on decomposition rates of residues Commun. Soil Sci. Plan. 35 441 460 Goulet, E. Dousset, S. Chaussod, R. Bartoli

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. Replacement models have been widely discussed in the literature and applied to many economic problems, including orchard management. The basic principle of asset replacement is “to compare gains from keeping the current asset for another time interval with the

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orchard adapted to a cool climate and evaluate their effects on weed management, soil nutrient content, and soil physical conditions as well as apple yield, quality, and storability to replace standard tillage with new floor management systems. Materials

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in pecan orchards. Sodded floor management has also been reported to improve soil permeability (e.g., Folorunso et al., 1992 ; Prichard et al., 1990 ). However, the data needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods for leaching salt in

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. (2008) reported that leguminous cover crops resulted in greater soil N availability and microbial activity than other orchard floor management strategies, including cultivation and wood chip mulch. Numerous studies, however, have reported reduced tree

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Orchard floor and groundcover management is an important issue for fruit growers, affecting the ease of orchard operation as well as tree performance and soil quality. Herbicide-treated tree rows with mowed grass drive lanes are the most widely used

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., 2002 ), others report a tendency for decreased storage potential related to thinning ( Wójcik et al., 2001 ) and decreased yield ( Basak, 1999 ). Most studies relating apple fruit quality to orchard management procedures involve individual testing of

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