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collection (EC-461691). It has an indeterminate growth habit. Fruits are smooth, round, and an attractive red color with 75 g average weight and having a thick pericarp resulting in a long storage life. It is suitable for cultivation under both open-field and

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experimental area, namely, traditional open field cultivation (150 m), sunny slope cultivation (150 m), shady slope cultivation (150 m), understory intercropping (150 m), and high-altitude cultivation (810 m). Some artificial measures were performed to remove

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tree shape is spindle-shaped. The fruit samples were picked separately from sweet cherry trees with three cultivation patterns [arched cover (PN), umbrella cover (SX), and open field (LD)]. During the commercial harvest period, according to the

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advantage of a lengthy, subtropical growing season. Therefore, our study objectives included a replicated, systems-level comparison of organic heirloom tomato production under high tunnels and the open field in eastern North Carolina (USDA hardiness zone 7b

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In Japan, asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) cropping types can be divided as follows: open field culture; semi-forcing culture; and rootstock planting forcing culture (RPFC) ( Motoki 2003 , 2016 ). With open field and semi-forcing cultures

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generated by sterol, glycerol resin, etc., and δ 2.4–0.8 signals represent aliphatic hydrogens. Fig. 1. 1 H-NMR spectra of sweet cherry tree leaves under rain-shelter cultivation. Fig. 2. 1 H-NMR spectra of sweet cherry tree leaves under open-field

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typically in early May and the last in late September ( Chiu et al., 2015 ; Hsu, 2004 ). Individual fruit bagging is a widely used practice in the open-field cultivation of white-fleshed pitaya in Taiwan to minimize the impact of pests on fruit appearance

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orientated to the north during the experimental period. At the beginning of the flowering phenophase, bushes with sufficient flowering capacity and with flowers exhibiting uniform growth were selected from the open field and the greenhouse. From 5 to 13 Mar

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presumably prevented farmers from continuing traditional crop rotation, vegetable grafting became a crucial tool to overcome soilborne diseases and other pests. In the 1990s, nearly 60% of open fields and greenhouses in Japan producing muskmelon ( Cucumis

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Seedlings of three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars [`RDD', carrier of the Sw5 gene, which confers resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV); `Pitihué', tolerant to the virus; and the susceptible cultivar Rutgers] were placed at the four- to five-leaf stage in cages containing a population of viruliferous thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Perg.), and remained there for 0, 7, or 15 days. Plants were subsequently transplanted either into the open field or in tunnels protected with a mesh of 14 × 10 threads/cm. Systemic symptoms and number of dead plants were recorded and enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed. `Rutgers' exhibited severe systemic symptoms regardless of treatment and a high number of plants died. The level of infected plants remained low when protective measures were applied to seedlings of `Pitihué' and acceptable yields were obtained. In open air cultivation, where seedling infection was severe, <20% of `RDD' plants became infected and high yields were obtained; protected cultivation did not reduce yield. Although the percentage of infected plants was higher when cultivated under mesh, the yield of all three cultivars was greater than in the open field. The environment created under mesh stimulated growth, neutralizing the effect of the infection.

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