per plant. Methodology for flower ontogenesis. Shoots of miracle fruit were tagged and collected from 10 plants. The flowers in different developmental stages ( Fig. 3 ) were collected randomly and observed under light microscope. Six developmental
Chen Xingwei, Thohirah Lee Abdullah, Sima Taheri, Nur Ashikin Psyquay Abdullah, and Siti Aishah Hassan
Nancy Santana-Buzzy, Guadalupe López-Puc, Adriana Canto-Flick, Felipe Barredo-Pool, Eduardo Balam-Uc, Susana Avilés-Viñas, Daniela Solís-Marroquín, Carlos Lecona-Guzmán, Jericó Jabín Bello-Bello, Eunice Gómez-Uc, and Javier O. Mijangos-Cortés
of morphological and histological changes during the ontogenesis of the somatic embryo. Materials and Methods Induction of somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos of the cultivar BVII-03 of red Habanero pepper ( C. chinense ) were obtained from
Iwane Okutani and Nobuo Sugiyama
Changes in oxalate concentrations in individual leaves during ontogenesis were examined by a sequential sampling of spinach plants grown in solution culture. The period between initiation of two successive leaves was 1.58 days. Fresh weight of each leaf increased at a constant rate with time after the leaf became 1 cm in length. Oxalate concentrations in plant tops decreased gradually with plant age. Oxalate concentrations in each leaf remained constant during ontogenesis, and they were negatively correlated with the leaf position numbered from the base. Leaf growth rates and the relationship between oxalate concentrations and leaf position were combined to make a model that describes the changes in oxalate concentrations in plant tops as the age of the plant advanced. The resulting model indicated that oxalate concentrations in plant tops decreased more rapidly as plastochron became shorter.
Naza Azizbekova, Christia M. Roberts, Stefanie Butland, and Brian Ellis
Scilla peruviana is a bulbous plant whose distribution extends from South Africa, into Europe and Asia. It belongs to the family Liliaceae (subclass Monocotyledonae). S. peruviana is an attractive floral species with excellent commercial potential, but it does not produce many bulblets and its multiplication rate is very low. Increasing the multiplication rate, and regulation of its growth and development, cannot be achieved without knowledge of its basic patterns of ontogenesis. We studied the annual growth and development of S. peruviana, from initiation until differentiation, giving special attention to cytological changes at the apical meristem. We also investigated the cytophysiological changes occurring in scales during ontogenesis. Two generations of daughter bulbs are present in each mother bulb. Flowering of the mother bulb coincides with vegetative development of the apical meristem of the primary daughter bulb (March-April). During gradual senescence of leaves and roots of the mother bulb, the apical meristem of the primary daughter bulb undergoes a transition from vegetative to prefloral development (June). Intensive flower organ differentiation occurs in the daughter bulb during the mother bulb's rest period (July–August). Initiation of the apical meristem of the secondary daughter bulb occurs within the primary daughter bulb, which is itself enclosed within the mother bulb (August). The development of the apical meristem of a daughter bulb, from its initiation until flowering, thus occurs without interruption and takes ≈20 months. By modifying external factors such as temperature and growth regulators, we can now control time of flowering and increase the multiplication rate of S. peruviana.
“Flower Ontogenesis and Fruit Development of Synsepalum dulcificum ” (HortScience June 2016 51:697–702), the author’s name “Chen Xingway” was mispelled: The correct spelling is “Chen Xingwei.”
Naza Sh. Azizbekova, Stefanie L. Butland, Brian E. Ellis, and Christia M. Roberts
The growth cycle of Scilla peruviana L. involved the development of two generations of daughter bulbs enclosed within each mother bulb. Flower initiation of the primary daughter bulb took place in June as the mother bulb apparently entered dormancy. Floral differentiation was complete by late October, by which time the apical meristem of the secondary daughter bulb had developed for 3 months inside the primary daughter bulb. The complete cycle of ontogenesis, from meristem initiation to flowering, occurred without interruption and required 20 months. Small zones of meristematic cells detected at the bases of bulb scales may be the origin of adventitious bulblets in this species. This detailed cytological study enabled the development of an effective commercial forcing program for S. peruviana.
Sissel Torre, Tove Fjeld, Hans Ragnar Gislerød, and Roar Moe
Single node cuttings with one mature leaf were taken from Rosa ×hybrida `Baroness' and rooted in water culture. The plants were subjected to either 90% (high) or 70% (moderate) relative humidity (RH) in climate chambers. Single stem roses with intact roots were transferred to 40% (low) RH to investigate the stomatal response to water stress. Moderate RH plants showed decreasing leaf conductance from day 1 to day 3 during both light and dark phases, in contrast to high RH roses, which showed almost similar leaf conductances during the 3 days. Leaf samples were studied with a light microscope (LM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to quantify morphological and structural changes. Epidermal imprints showed a significantly higher number of stomata and longer stomata, as well as a wider stomatal apertures on roses grown at high RH. The high RH leaves showed a reduced density of vascular tissue and thinner leaves when compared to moderate RH leaves. Enlarged intercellular air-space (ICA) was found due to a reduced number of spongy and palisade mesophyll cells. No obvious difference in shape, size, undulation or the structure of the epicuticular wax was observed in SEM between high and moderate RH grown leaves. In conclusion, roses subjected to high RH showed differences in leaf anatomy, stomatal morphology and stomatal function, which may explain the loss of water control of these plants. Stomatal ontogenesis should occur at RH conditions below 85% to secure roses with a high postharvest quality potential.
Elina Yankova-Tsvetkova, Ivanka B. Semerdjieva, Rozalia Nikolova, and Valtcho D. Zheljazkov
’ classification ( Davis, 1966 ). It consisted of four layers: an epidermis, an endothecium, one middle layer, and a tapetum. At the beginning of anther’s ontogenesis, the anther’s wall layers were almost similar in shape and size ( Fig. 1A ) but after the
Bielinski M. Santos
lycopene by potassium is cultivar dependent HortScience 43 159 165 Tapia, M.L. Gutierrez, V. 1997 Distribution pattern of dry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium through tomato ontogenesis J. Plant Nutr. 20 783 791 U.S. Department of Agriculture
Gyeong Ran Do, Ju Hee Rhee, Wan Soon Kim, Yun Im Kang, In Myung Choi, Jeom Hwa Han, Hyun Hee Han, Su Hyun Ryu, and Han Chan Lee
male sterility. This article aimed to study the spatiotemporal correlations between pollen morphology (ontogenesis) and fertility in natural male-sterile triploid L. lancifolium to provide helpful information about the mechanism responsible for male