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Yuting Zou, Yanan Wang, Mingwei Zhu, Shuxian Li and Qiuyue Ma

, relevant research on the behavior of seed oil accumulation and changes in UFAs during seed development are extremely scarce. In our study, we investigated seed and follicle development of P. ostii ‘Fengdan’ using MRI. The formation of oil bodies was

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Carlos R. Quesada and Clifford S. Sadof

Insecticidal soap and horticultural oil have been used since the late 1800s to manage soft-bodied insect pests of fruits, shade trees, and ornamental plants ( Weinzierl, 2000 ). Insecticidal soaps are made of a potassium salt of a plant

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Noelle J. Fuller, Ronald B. Pegg, James Affolter and David Berle

-reducing adaptogenic properties, i.e., it has the capability to help the body adapt to stress, normalize physiological function, and restore balance regardless of the origin of the stressor ( Kuhn and Winston, 2000 ; Pattanayak et al., 2010 ; Singh et al., 2012

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Carlos R. Quesada, Adam Witte and Clifford S. Sadof

contents of plant cells ( Sadof and Neal, 1993 ) and are characterized by their waxy covering ( Rosen, 1990 ). These wax covers, also called tests, start forming within 24–48 h after they settle to feed. The test is not bound to the body of an armored scale

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D.M. Obenland, D.A. Margosan, L.G. Houck and L.H. Aung

Release, localization, and concentration of essential oils in chilling-injured and noninjured lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] fruit were investigated to enhance understanding of how chilling injury (CI) occurs in lemon. CI in the form of moderate to severe pitting of the flavedo was initially apparent after 3 weeks at 1 °C, followed by a gradual increase in severity until termination of the experiment after 7 weeks at 1 °C. Curing the fruit at 15 °C for 1 week before cold treatment greatly reduced the severity of CI. Release from the fruit of d-limonene, a major component of essential oil in lemon, increased with increasing amounts of CI. The enhancement of d-limonene release, however, lagged behind the development of CI. Studies of the internal anatomy of the flavedo using confocal microscopy indicated that essential oils were abundantly present inside the oil gland and in oil bodies outside the gland. Chilling-injured flavedo exhibited no obvious disruption of either the oil glands or the oil bodies. Extraction and quantification of d-limonene from chilling-injured and noninjured flavedo indicated that similar amounts of oil were present in the tissue, regardless of injury. Damage to the flavedo after 3 weeks at 1 °C was noted in the form of flattened or collapsed cells between the top of the gland and the epidermis, whereas collapse of the oil gland only was observed in later stages of injury development.

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Peter J. Hofman, Marcelle Jobin-Décor and Janet Giles

The potential to use percentage of dry matter (DM) and/or oil of the flesh of `Hass' avocado as a maturity standard to determine the latest harvest for acceptable fruit quality, was investigated. `Hass' avocado fruit were harvested from early October to mid-January from a commercial orchard in subtropical Queensland. The percentage of DM and oil changed little during the harvest period, and the eating quality of the flesh remained high. However, the incidence of body rots (caused mainly by Colletotrichum sp.) and the flesh disorders grey pulp and vascular browning, increased with harvest. These results indicate that percentage of DM and oil are not reliable late-maturity standards because of the inconsistent change with later harvests, and that disease and internal disorders can be the main determinants of latest acceptable harvest, rather than eating quality.

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Paul Vossen

‘Cerasuola’ blends. Classic oil from the southernmost region of Italy is usually quite green with a golden undertone. It has good body with medium ripe fruitiness, some bitterness and pungency, and very interesting complexity. Many oil producers in this

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Natasha Kovatcheva, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov and Tess Astatkie

markets and has always commanded the highest price among rose essential oils ( Nedkov and Attanassova, 2004 ). Rose oil is used extensively in high-end perfumery and cosmetics; it is a constituent of some of the most expensive body care products. Rose oil

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Joyce W. Ngure, Chunyan Cheng, Shuqiong Yang, Qunfeng Lou, Ji Li, Chuntao Qian, Jie Chen and Jinfeng Chen

Cucumber fruit is used in treating human constipation and indigestion, and in cooling the body in summer. Young fruit are preferred for pickling while seed kernels are used in confectionary ( Saboo et al., 2013 ). Cucumbers have potential medicinal

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William Reichert, H. Chung Park, H. Rodolfo Juliani and James E. Simon

species and poultry mites ( Birkett et al., 2011 ; Khan et al., 2012 ). In a body contact assay involving harvester ants, mortality was achieved faster with the Z , E -isomer than the other nepetalactones in catnip oil ( Gkinis et al., 2003 ). A