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John C. Majsztrik and John D. Lea-Cox

plans, which have already been approved, and the data being used in the Chesapeake Bay model. NUTRIENT TRADING Nutrient trading is another opportunity, which may have the potential to reduce nutrient loads to the Bay and provide growers with an

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S. Shukla, B.J. Boman, R.C. Ebel, P.D. Roberts, and E.A. Hanlon

Nutrient loading from agricultural and urban areas is one of the main causes of the degradation of Florida water bodies. A large portion of the nutrient loading to surface and groundwaters of Florida originates from commercial horticultural crop

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Sueyde F. de Oliveira, Paul R. Fisher, Jinsheng Huang, and Simone da C. Mello

production of container crops. Using CRF instead of WSF is recommended to the landscape service industry as a best management practice to provide nutrients for an extended period ( Andiru et al., 2013 ; Chen et al., 2011 ). CRF include urea, ammonium nitrate

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, Jake F. Browder, J. Roger Harris, and Alex X. Niemiera

and irrigation programs of these substrates to maximize plant performance and minimize nutrient loss resulting from environmental concerns ( Gouin and Link, 1973 ; Warren and Bilderback, 2004 ). The need to develop new substrates and fertility

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M.D. Orzolek

Hydrophylic polymers are synthetic, water-absorbing monomers of high molecular weight. They have been used as absorbents in the diaper industry for the past 30 years. Polymers differ from each other in the specific monomer building block, amount of water absorbed per gram of material, particle size and distribution, response to salinity, and cost. While there are only four different monomers used in the production of polymers, there are several dozen polymers available commercially under different trade names. Benefits derived from polymer application to soil or artificial medium include: increase in water-holding capacity, increase in pore size/number, increase in soil nutrient reserves, and reduction in soil compaction. Initial use of polymers was reported in greenhouse production in the late 1970s, but is now used in the production of fruits, vegetables, and turf. Development of application equipment has the potential to expand the use of polymers to large commercial growers.

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Milton E. McGiffen Jr., John Manthey, Aziz Baameur, Robert L. Greene, Benjamin A. Faber, A. James Downer, and Jose Aguiar

A 1992 article by Nonomura and Benson (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89:9794-979X) reported increased yield and drought tolerance in a wide range of C3 species following foliar applications of methanol. The article was widely reported in the trade and popular press, which created a huge grower demand for information on the use and efficacy of methanol. To test the validity of the reports, we applied methanol with and without nutrients to a wide range of crops across California following Nonomura and Benson's (1992) protocol. Crops included watermelon, creeping bentgrass, lemons, savoy cabbage, carrots, romaine lettuce, radish, wheat, corn and peas. Environments included the greenhouse and field tests in coastal, inland valley, and desert locations. To test whether methanol improved drought tolerance, the savoy cabbage and watermelon experiments included both reduced and full irrigation. In no case was yield increased or drought tolerance attributable to methanol treatment. In some cases, methanol caused significant injury and decreased yield.

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Lori Hoagland, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, David Granatstein, Frank Peryea, Jeff Smith, and John Reganold

Organic orchards represent a significant and growing component of Washington state agriculture. Comparison studies have shown that organic apple systems can be equally profitable yet more environmentally sustainable than their conventional counterparts. Despite this success, sustainable methods of weed control, fertility, and soil quality stabilization and improvement have remained a challenge. Intensive cultivation is commonly used to control weeds in organic orchards. This can lead to reduced or degraded soil organic matter, structure, water infiltration, aerated pore space, and other soil productivity parameters. In addition, tillage accelerates nutrient cycling and can result in the loss of valuable nutrients from the system. To address the need for sustainable organic methods of weed management, an integrated study of alternative understory management options was established in a newly planted orchard in 2005. Weed control measures included efficient tillage using a Wonder weeder, organically approved herbicide, wood chip mulch, and living cover mulches. Three rates of nitrogen (low, medium, and high) were applied across the Wonder weeder, wood chip, and living cover mulch plots in order to determine ideal N fertility rate. Analyses of total C and N and N-15 in organic fertilizers, soil pools, living cover biomass, and tree leaves are being used to track N and C cycling and partitioning, N-use efficiency, soil quality, and to determine optimal fertility guidelines. Preliminary results indicate intense competition between living mulch understory and orchard trees, and a trade-off may exist between maximizing soil quality and orchard productivity.

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Prem Nath and Sundari Velu

In a world that produces enough food for everyone, about 800 million people in the developing world do not have enough to eat. The important challenge facing agriculture in the new millennium is to eliminate chronic hunger. Safe and better quality food is equally important to ensure that people not only have sufficient energy but also the nutrients necessary for adequate productive lives. In order to release the pressure on cereals as well as to improve human nutrition through consumption of the other nutritious crops, diversification in cropping patterns provides better options, and horticultural crops, including vegetables with their wide adoption and providers of important nutrients, offer promise for the future. In this spirit and in the wake of the present global call for eliminating food and nutritional insecurity, the technologists, entrepreneurs, policy-makers and those interested in agriculture were invited to participate and contribute to fruitful discussion at the International Conference on Vegetables (ICV–2002), which was held 11–14 Nov. 2002 in Bangalore, India. About 700 participants from 37 countries across the globe participated in the conference, and a total of 621 papers were presented. The ICV–2002 addressed 13 theme areas, which included vegetable improvement in production, protection, underutilized vegetables, postharvest management, developmental policies and programs, marketing and trade including WTO policies and programs, and, finally, technical cooperation among developing countries. The salient recommendations of the ICV–2002 will be presented.

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Dennis M. Kirven

Abstract

Horticultural analytical services are coming out of the shadow of agronomic soil testing, but the multiplicity of test procedures and the numbers they generate appear to be confusing. Progressive horticulturists are not content with using knowledge and services within the confines of their immediate geographical area. Various horticultural publications provide a wealth of practical experience and research results from national and international sources. Growers commonly use a combination of university and private or commercial laboratory services. As valuable as this knowledge base may be, the results, recommendations, and information provided can lead to confusion rather than enlightenment. Scientific journal articles, university reports, horticultural trade articles, or troubleshooting using more than one analytical service often present conflicting information. One should not construe that we have not made progress in the area of analysis of organic media. We have made great progress. Horticulture is no longer the stepchild to agronomic analytical services. Specifically, nutrient extraction concentrations are now expressed as parts per million, rather than pounds per acre. Also, many private labs and some university labs now offer specific horticultural analyses in addition to the usual agronomic analysis. Furthermore, guidelines for interpreting results have in some instances been characterized for various commodity crops.

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William R. Argo, John A. Biernbaum, and Darryl D. Warncke

Michigan Agricultural Expt. Station, the Western Michigan Bedding Plant Association, Fafard Analytical Services, Scotts Analytical Services, Sun Gro Analytical Services, and the Michigan State Univ. Soil and Plant Nutrient Testing Laboratory for supporting