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land in the world ( Ruan et al., 2010 ). The response of plants to salinity is complex and involves changes in morphology, physiology, and metabolism. Salinity effects on plants include cellular water deficit, ion toxicity, nutrient deficiencies, and

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fertilizers. N is the most important nutrient for plant growth and fruit bud formation ( Li and Lascano 2011 ), and its deficiency can severely decrease crop yield and quality ( Tsialtas and Maslaris 2005 ). During the rapid growth period, N-deficient plants

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Elemental deficiencies of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, or B were induced in plants of Allamanda nerifolia. Rooted stem cuttings were planted in 4.87-L plastic containers and fertilized with a complete modified Hoagland's solution or this solution minus the element that was to be investigated. Plants were harvested to measure dry weights when initial foliar symptoms were expressed and later under advanced deficiency symptoms. Deficiency symptoms for all treatments were observed within 6 weeks. The most dramatic expression of foliar symptoms occurred with N (yellow-green young leaves with necrotic tips), K (downward bending medium-green mature leaves with splotchy chlorosis), S (greenish-yellow young and youngest leaves), and Zn (young leaves with interveinal chlorosis from base to tip). At the initial stage, all nutrient-deficient plants had similar dry weights, when compared to the control. Dry weights of plants treated with solutions not containing N or P were significantly lower when compared to the control under an advanced deficiency. To help prevent the development of deficiencies, minimal critical tissue levels have to be determined for adaptation by the greenhouse industry for nutritional monitoring.

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Elemental deficiencies of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, or B were induced in plants of Pentas lanceolata `Butterfly Red'. Rooted stem cuttings were planted in 4.87-L plastic containers and fertilized with a complete modified Hoagland's solution or this solution minus the element that was to be investigated. Plants were harvested to measure dry weights when initial foliar symptoms were expressed and later under advanced deficiency symptoms. Deficiency symptoms for all treatments were observed within 7 weeks. The most dramatic expression of foliar symptoms occurred with N (medium green young leaves with interveinal chlorosis on base and tip), S (spindle-like young and recently mature leaves), Cu (purple-brown roots and young leaves with downward pointed leaf tips), and B (multiple youngest leaves arising from shoot tip). At the initial stage, all nutrient-deficient plants had similar dry weights, when compared to the control. Dry weights of plants treated with solutions not containing P were significantly lower when compared to the control under an advanced deficiency. In order to help prevent the development of deficiencies, minimal critical tissue levels have to be determined for adaptation by the greenhouse industry for nutritional monitoring.

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Abstract

Symptoms for 7 nutrient deficiencies were established for elatior begonia ‘Schwabenland Red’ (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.). These are summarized in the form of a key as follows:

a. Chlorosis is a dominant symptom.

b. Chlorosis interveinal.

c. Interveinal chlorosis on older leaves followed by light tan necrotic spots within chlorotic areas which expand until leaf dies........................................................................................................................Mg

cc. Interveinal chlorosis on younger leaves.....................................................................................................Fe

bb. Chlorosis not interveinal.

c. Lower leaves uniformly yellow then purplish yellow and finally necrotic.................i.....................N

cc. Margins of canopy leaves yellow, then murky green-brown, and finally necrotic; all symptoms spread toward the leaf center......................................................................................................................Ca

aa. Chlorosis not a dominant symptom.

b. Necrosis begins along the margin of lower leaves and progresses inward....................................................K

bb. Plants stunted but normal green..........................................................................................................................P

bbb. Rust color, striations and cracks develop on young leaf petioles and peduncles perpendicular to their axes; internodes shortened and lateral shoots prolific; young leaves brittle crinkled around rust color spots which turn necrotic; chlorosis and necrosis spreading inward from the margin of young leaves...B

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Abstract

Pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch] seed were germinated in perlite and treated with either a complete nutrient solution or a nutrient solution minus B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, S, or Zn. Omitting any single nutrient suppressed seedling growth and induced deficiency symptoms for all nutrients except Fe, Mn, and Cu. Corresponding leaf concentration data associated with deficiency symptoms and normal growth agreed closely with proposed standards.

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Abstract

Nutrient imbalances were investigated to a) document nutrient deficiency and micronutrient toxicity symptoms in florists’ hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla Thunb.) and b) examine the possible relationship of single-element deficiencies and toxicities with a foliar malformation prevelant on hydrangeas grown at >30°C. Plants subjected to N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, and Zn deficiency and B and Mn toxicity treatments produced visual symptoms of the corresponding nutrient imbalance. Visual symptoms did not develop in +Fe, +Cu, +Zn, +Mo, −Mn, −Cu, and −Mo treatments. None of the symptoms induced were similar to the foliar malformations observed on hydrangeas grown at >30°. Hydrangea leaf malformation does not appear to be correlated with any single nutrient imbalance within hydrangea leaves. Results of the nutrient deficiency and toxicity experiments offer a diagnostic tool for interpretation of nutrient analysis of hydrangea.

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Celery (Apium graveolens var. Dulce) is a species particularly sensitive to nutritional balance. Seedlings in multicellular trays sometimes present problems that can be traced to nutritional causes. DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) and CND (Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis) are two recent concepts that can be implemented to diagnose nutritional imbalances from tissue analyses of any plant species. A data bank of 215 observations was used to elaborate DRIS and CND norms for celery transplants. The threshold yield for high yielders was set at 1600 g/plant (27% of the population). Both DRIS and CND systems were implemented and a validation process was undertaken. Nutrient deficiencies (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, B and Zn) were induced on celery seedlings in growing chambers. Tissues samples were given a balanced fertilization. The diagnosing methods (DRIS and CND) were compared on the basis of their ability to identify correctly the induced nutrient deficiencies.

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Geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum) is considered to be one of the top-selling floriculture plants, and is highly responsive to increased macro- and micronutrient bioavailability. In spite of its economic importance, there are few nutrient disorder symptoms reported for this species. The lack of nutritional information contributes to suboptimal geranium production quality. Understanding the bioenergetic construction costs during nutrient deficiency can provide insight into the significance of that element predisposing plants to other stress. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of nutrient deficiency on plant growth. Pelargonium plants were grown hydroponically in a glass greenhouse. The treatment consisted of a complete modified Hoagland's millimolar concentrations of macronutrients (15 NO3-N, 1.0 PO4-P, 6.0 K, 5.0 Ca, 2.0 Mg, and 2.0 SO4-S) and micromolar concentrations of micronutrients (72 Fe, 9.0 Mn, 1.5 Cu, 1.5 Zn, 45.0 B, and 0.1 Mo) and 10 additional solutions each devoid of one essential nutrient (N, P, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, or B). The plants were photographed and divided into young, maturing, and old leaves, the respective petioles, young and old stems, flowers, buds, and roots at “hidden hunger,” incipient, mid- and advanced-stages of nutrient stress. Unique visual deficiency symptoms of interveinal red pigmentation were noted on the matured leaves of P- and Mg-deficient plants, while N-deficient plants developed chlorotic leaf margins. Tissue N concentration greatly influenced bioenergetic construction costs, probably due to differences in protein content. This information will provide an additional tool in producing premium geraniums for the greenhouse industry.

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Abstract

In the article “Evaluation of Nutrient Deficiency and Micronutrient Toxicity Symptoms in Florists’ Hydrangea”, by Douglas A. Bailey and P. Allen Hammer (J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 113(3):363–367, May 1988), the following corrections should be noted: 1) In Table 3, percent dry weight of N for the –N treatment should read “1.40”, not “4.40”; 2) the significance levels in footnote z of Table 3 should read “0.05 ≥ α ≥ 0.01 (*), at 0.01 ≥ α > 0.001 (**), or at α ≤ 0.001 (***)”; 3) Tables 4 and 5 are numbered incorrectly—they should be switched; and 4) the significance levels in footnote z of the renumbered Table 5 should read “0.01 ≥ α > 0.001 (**) or at α ≤ 0.001 (***)”.

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