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Lauren Fessler, Amy Fulcher, Dave Lockwood, Wesley Wright, and Heping Zhu

orchards and nurseries, large volumes of spray solution are applied by air-assisted sprayers to ensure adequate spray deposition in the interior of the canopy, regardless of whether the tree is positioned in an exterior or interior row ( Zhu et al., 2017

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Heping Zhu, James Altland, Richard C. Derksen, and Charles R. Krause

of spray deposition and coverage inside nursery liner canopies from over-the-row frame vertical boom sprayer, to determine its optimal application rates, and to establish a spray rate model for different size liners with similar canopy shapes, in an

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Diana R. Cochran, Amy Fulcher, and Guihong Bi

available in the United States. The popularity of hydrangeas among consumers can be linked to the large, showy inflorescences, remontant blooming of some selections, and range of bloom colors, including blue. Pruning is a common practice in nursery

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Fenton E Larsen and Stewart S. Higgins

Many tree fruit nurseries are limited to fall digging of deciduous nursery stock. Since trees may not defoliate naturally for timely digging, these nurseries may wish to defoliate chemically, which would be less expensive than hand-stripping and may more closely simulate natural leaf abscission. Consequently, test chemicals were applied with hand sprayers at commercial nurseries in central Washington State using single or double applications 1 wk apart. In 1992 on 7 apple cultivars and one pear, 500 ppm NPA + 150 ppm Ethrel significantly enhanced defoliation. Defoliation at 1000 ppm NPA was not superior to that at 500 ppm, and two applications were generally no better than one. However, in 1993, two applications were often more effective than one, and the addition of Ethrel to NPA generally enhanced defoliation if the combination of NPA + Ethrel was applied twice. Alanap and NPA were generally equally effective as defoliants. The addition of Ethrel to Alanap enhanced defoliation in only 3 of 9 cultivars, and then generally only when sprayed twice. Alanap + Ethrel was as effective with Alanap at 300 ppm as with Alanap at 500 ppm Ethrel by itself seldom increased defoliation.

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James H. Aldrich and Jeffrey G. Norcini

Postemergence control of Phyllanthus urinaria L. (chamberbitter) in nursery and landscape plantings has been primarily limited to hand-weeding. Prodiamine was evaluated for postemergence control of chamberbitter and phytotoxicity to containerized ornamentals. On 20 June 1995, prodiamine at 0, 1.68, 3.36, or 6.72 kg a.i./ha was applied over-the-top to immature chamberbitter growing in 3.8-L containers of established Buddleia davidii Franch. `White Bouquet' Cuphea hyssopifolia HBK. `Desert Snow', Lantana camara L. `Irene', and Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. `Lavender Weeping'. Weed-free checks were included. Applications were made with a compressed air backpack sprayer. There were four replications per treatment placed in a randomized complete block design by species. Plants were established and maintained on a container bed under full sun and overhead irrigation. Growth of and phytotoxicity to the ornamentals species, and percent coverage and number of chamberbitter, were recorded periodically for 14 weeks after treatment (WAT). Chamberbitter shoots were harvested for dry weight analysis 14 WAT. Prodiamine provided some postemergence control of chamberbitter. However, Cuphea and both Lantana species exhibited leaf distortion and/or delayed flowering.

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Clint Hoffmann, Brad Fritz, Dan Martin, Ryan Atwood, Tim Hurner, Mark Ledebuhr, Matt Tandy, John L. Jackson, and Gail Wisler

psyllids. Stover et al. (2002) , in a survey to indentify current spray application practices on citrus crops in Florida, identified three predominate sprayer types, including two airblast sprayers at mid- and high-volume application rates and a low

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Liming Chen, Matthew Wallhead, Michael Reding, Leona Horst, and Heping Zhu

spray volume by 57% at the full-foliage stage and 73% at the leafing stage of apple while remaining comparable spray deposition on target areas compared with a conventional constant-rate sprayer. In an experiment with multiple-row nursery trees

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Mary Joy M. Abit and Bradley D. Hanson

California nursery operations combined to produce $165.5 million in wholesale value of fruit and nut tree planting stock—a value that is multiplied severalfold by retailers and exporters ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007 ). Fruit and nut tree

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R. Kasten Dumroese, Jasmine L. Williams, Jeremiah R. Pinto, and Peng Zhang

the ends of each bed. On 3 June, the whole plot treatments were applied following label instructions and using a nursery-designed 3-point power takeoff power sprayer calibrated to apply 280 L/ha at 170 kPa using TeeJet 8006 VisiFlo Even Flat Spray

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shale to each growing media at rates of 0%, 15%, 30%, and 60% increased their bulk densities, but generally had negative effects on the ability of the growing media to support the growth of several ornamental plant species. Citrus Sprayer Rodeos in