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tested, and the following gases have shown particular promise: nitric oxide ( Navarre et al., 2000 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) ( Palomer et al., 2005 ; Qadir and Hashinaga, 2001 ), and superatmospheric oxygen ( Zheng et al., 2008 ). N 2 O is a gas that is

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Nitrous oxide (N2O) was tested as a potential fungicidal or fungistatic compound. Twelve postharvest fungi were exposed to 10 to 80 kPa with 20 kPa O2 in a static system at 20 °C. These fungi were divided into N2O high-, medium- and low-sensitive groups. Based on growth sensitivity, growth of high-sensitive fungi was completely inhibited, and that of medium-sensitive fungi up to 85%. With low-sensitive fungi, significant inhibition was achieved only when the fungi were exposed to N2O continuously for 6 days. Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr., Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, Monilinia fructicola (Winter) Honey, Penicillium expansum Link, Penicillium italicum Wehmer, Phytophthora citrophthora (R.E. Smith and E.H. Smith) Leonian and Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrens.: Fr.) Vuillemin, were high-sensitive; Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spaulding was medium-sensitive, and Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend1: Fr. f. sp. fragariae Winks and Williams, Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend1: Fr. f. sp. lycopersici (Saccardo) Snyder and Hansen., and Geotrichum candidum Link., were low-sensitive fungi. Addition of up to 100 μL·L-l C2H4 did not reduce inhibition caused by N2O. The inhibitory effect of N2O was considered to be due to biophysical properties similar to CO2, the competitive inhibition on C2H4 action, or the biosynthesis of methionine. These results indicate the potential of N2O to control some postharvest decay fungi.

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Seeds of the recalcitrant species Litch i chinénis and Euphoria longan were stored in humid conditions at 8-10C under three different atmospheres: air, 80% nitrous oxide (N20)/20 % oxygen, and 100% nitrous oxide. The combination of anesthetic and oxygen extended storage longevity of both species. Oxygen was required for maintenance of viability; seeds stored under 100% N20 lost germinability at the most rapid rate. Lychee seeds retained 92% of control germination after 12 weeks under 80% N20/20% 02, while those under air lost 56% viability. Longan seeds lost all viability after 7 weeks under air, yet retained 70% of their control germination under 80% N20/20% 02. The combination of anesthetic and oxygen atmospheres could provide a new approach to recalcitrant seed storage.

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Seeds of the recalcitrant species lychee (Litchi chinénsis Sonn.) and longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) were stored near 100% relative humidity at 8 to 10C in air, 80% nitrous oxide (N2O) plus 20% oxygen, or 100% nitrous oxide. The combination of anesthetic and oxygen extended storage longevity of both species. Seeds stored in 100% N2O lost terminability at the same rate as those stored in air. Lychee seeds retained 92% of initial germination after 12 weeks under 80% N2O/20% O2, while those under air retained only 44%. Longan seeds failed to germinate after 7 weeks under air, yet retained 70% of their initial germination under 809” N2O/20% O2. The combination of anesthetic and oxygen atmospheres could provide a new approach to recalcitrant seed storage.

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ruminant animals, flooded rice fields, biomass burning, and manure management and storage ( Cole et al., 1997 ; Johnson et al., 1993 ; USDA, 2008 ). Nitrous oxide emissions are a direct result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers and production of

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Carbon dioxide, methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are major contributors to the increases in GHG emissions, fueling changes in the earth’s climate. The USEPA(2015) estimates that GHG emissions due to agriculture accounted for 7.6% of

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.html >. Keever, G.J. Cobb, G.S. 1990 Plant response to container planting method and media J. Environ. Hort. 8 189 192 Kroeze, C. Mosier, A.R. 2000 New estimates for emissions of nitrous oxide 45 64 van Ham J.E.A. Non-CO 2 greenhouse gases: Scientific

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. There is also little information on the flux of other trace gases (nitrous oxide and methane) in these systems. Horticulture production facilities often use large amounts of water in irrigation as well as large amounts of fertilizers; this combination of

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diminished by the emission of ammonia and nitrous oxide from agricultural fields. Surface application of urea can result in significant ammonia volatilization; subsurface application or delivery in irrigation water can minimize this problem. The emission of

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nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are highly impacted by soil properties and climate ( Kaye et al., 2005 ; Khan et al., 2007 ; Maggiotto et al., 2000 ; Smith et al., 2007a ). Carbon dioxide represents over 98% of the soil GHG flux and is accounted for by NPP

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