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T.K. Hartz and R.F. Smith

reduces nitrogen fertilizer use and nitrate leaching hazard in lettuce production HortScience 37 1061 1064 Hanson, B.R. 1995 Practical potential irrigation efficiencies Proc. 1st Intl. Conf., Water Resources Eng. Div., Amer. Soc. Civil Eng San Antonio, TX

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Sueyde Fernandes de Oliveira Braghin, Simone C. Mello, Jéssika Angelotti-Mendonça, Keigo Minami, and Yuncong C. Li

quality, increasing the fertilizer use efficiency and preventing losses of nutrients, especially nitrogen (N) by leaching or denitrification ( Fageria and Baligar, 2005 ). CRFs are designed to release nutrients into the grown medium at a rate more closely

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Amy L. Shober, Andrew K. Koeser, Drew C. McLean, Gitta Hasing, and Kimberly K. Moore

. R package version 1.1-6 Erickson, J.E. Cisar, J.L. Snyder, G.H. Park, D.M. Williams, K.E. 2008 Does a mixed-species landscape reduce inorganic-nitrogen leaching compared to a conventional St. Augustinegrass lawn? Crop Sci. 48 1586 1594 Fisher, P

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Tim R. Pannkuk, Jacqueline A. Aitkenhead-Peterson, Kurt Steinke, James C. Thomas, David R. Chalmers, and Richard H. White

Excessive losses of nitrogen (N), orthophosphate (P), and DOC from soil by leaching is indicative of breaks in their respective nutrient cycles. Losses of these nutrients are typically caused by management practices or natural disturbances in the

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Lea Corkidi, Donald J. Merhaut, Edith B. Allen, James Downer, Jeff Bohn, and Mike Evans

transfer of nitrogen in an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis New Phytol. 168 687 696 Juntunen, M.L. Hammar, T. Rikala, R. 2002 Leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus during production of forest seedlings in containers J. Environ. Qual. 31 1868 1874 Kamphake, L

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Edward F. Gilman, Thomas H. Yeager, and Diane Weigle

Columns (4 × 15 cm) of incubated (25C, 7% volumetric moisture) milled cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) L. Rich] wood chips received 180 mg of each ionic form of N applied to the surface from dry NH4NO3, KNO3, or (NH4)2SO4 and were leached daily with 16 ml deionized water (pH 5.5). After 10 days, >85% of applied N leached from the columns in all treatments. After 25 days, all N leached from the NH4NO3 and KNO3 treatments, and 93% leached from the (NH4)2SO4 treatment. In subsequent experiments, columns received 360 mg N from NH4NO3 and were leached daily with either 16, 32, 48, or 64 ml of deionized water for 50 days. The rate of N leaching increased with increasing water application rate, although total N leached per column was similar for all water rates after 25 days. Columns that received 45, 90, 180, or 360 mg N/column were leached daily with 16 ml of deionized water. Nitrogen concentrations in the leachate ranged from 3406 ppm \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} and 2965 ppm \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{4}^{+}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} at day 5 for the 360-mg rate to 3 and 5 ppm, respectively, at day 35 for the 45-mg rate. In all experiments with NH4NO3, more \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} leached than \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{4}^{+}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} and more \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} leached than applied, indicating vitrification occurred. \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{4}^{+}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} and \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} broadcast over cypress wood chips in the landscape would leach quickly into the soil.

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Kathryn M. Santos, Paul R. Fisher, and William R. Argo

and Biernbaum, 1994 ). Much of the excess N applied in crops grown with high fertilizer concentrations and heavy leaching can be lost into the environment, depositing as much as 100 mg of nitrate–nitrogen (NO 3 -N) (243 mL or of effluent with a NO 3 -N

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Raul I. Cabrera, Richard Y. Evans, and J. L. Paul

Nitrogen leaching losses of 21, 40 and 49% were measured from container-grown `Royalty' roses irrigated for one year with nutrient solutions containing 77, 154 and 231 mg N/l. There were no significant differences in number of flowers per plant or dry matter per plant. The N present in the harvested flowers accounted for 43, 27 and 17% of the N applied for the 77, 154 and 231 mg N/l treatments, respectively.

Plants receiving 154 mg N/l at leaching fractions of 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 had corresponding N leaching losses of 22, 38 and 56%. In this experiment, however, the 0.5 leaching fraction produced yields significantly higher than those of the 0.1 and 0.25 treatments. The N recovered in the harvested flowers accounted for 28, 25 and 19% of that applied to the 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 treatments, respectively.

The results of these studies suggest that modifications in current irrigation and fertilization practices of greenhouse roses would result in a considerable reduction of N leaching losses and enhance N fertilizer use efficiency, without loss of cut flower yield and quality.

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Mark M. Alley

and PL increased through the experiment more so than from PTS likely as a result of accumulated N in those substrates from previous fertilizations (a result of less N immobilization). Table 7. Nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) leached (nutrient leaching

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Jeff B. Million, Thomas H. Yeager, and Joseph P. Albano

Service Institute Food Agricultural Sciences. Univ. Florida Gainesville, FL Huett, D.O. 1997 Fertiliser use efficiency by containerized nursery plants. 2. Nutrient leaching Aust. J. Agr. Sci. 48 259 265 Huett, D.O. Gogel, B.J. 2003 Longevities and nitrogen