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Jules Janick

gold and silver treasures were the new crops from the New World that have continually enriched the bounty and cuisine of Europe and the world ( Janick, 2011 ). Important New World crops are presented ( Table 1 ). We review the history and images of New

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Alberto Pardossi and Luca Incrocci

available for soil and plant scientists, whereas low cost and practical devices are needed for irrigation control of commercial crops. Interesting possibilities have been opened up by new types of SMSs that measure soil dielectric properties ( Dukes et al

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Shannon Caplan, Bryan Tilt, Gwen Hoheisel, and Tara A. Baugher

/or organizations, bound together by common problems and mutual goals ( Rogers, 2003 ). Entities can belong to multiple social systems. For example, an emerging farmer may belong to a geographically based, crop-specific social system as well as a new farmer social

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Christine Coker, Mike Ely, and Thomas Freeman

.E. Advances in new crops: Proceedings of the First National Symposium on New Crops, Research, Development, Economics Timber Press Portland, OR Rhoden, E.G. Bonsi, C.K. Ngoyi, M.L. 1990b Susceptibility of yardlong beans to root knot nematode infestation 446

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Anna Whipkey, James E. Simon, and Jules Janick

NewCROP (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop) is a crop resource online program that serves Indiana, the United States, and the world. This crop information system provides useful resources to encourage and assist new rural-based industries and to enhance agricultural sustainability and competitiveness. The NewCROP site currently averages 150,000 hits per month. Indiana CropMAP is the first module in a proposed nationwide, site-specific, retrievable system that will serve the crop information needs of individual growers, marketers, processors, government agencies, cooperative extension personnel, and industry. For each county in Indiana, users can access the most recent US agriculture statistics, county extension offices, lists of crops that are currently grown, recommended alternate crops, and experimental crops. Detailed crop information, much of it specific to Indiana, can be accessed directly or through a crop search. The New Crop Compendium CD-ROM was produced by the Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plant Products in cooperation with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The New Crop Compendium CD-ROM, a searchable resource of new crop information, was edited by Jules Janick and Anna Whipkey and contains the entire text and figures from the proceedings of the three National New Crop Symposia: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). 1990. Advances in New Crops. Timber Press, Portland, Ore.; J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). 1993. New Crops. Wiley, New York; and J. Janick (ed.). 1996. Progress in New Crops. ASHS Press, Alexandria, Va. The New Crop Compendium provides a valuable source of information on new, specialty, neglected, and underutilized crops for scientists, growers, marketers, processors, and extension personnel. It employs an intuitive, easy to use interface. Purchase information can be found at the following url: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/compendium/order.html.

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Carl Sams, Robert Steiner, Stephen H. Thomas, Stephanie Walker, and Mark E. Uchanski

crops should also be a non-host for nematodes or able to suppress nematode populations in the field. Southern RKN ( Meloidogyne incognita ), a plant–parasitic nematode, is of great concern to chile pepper growers in southern New Mexico ( Walker et al

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Terry Bates and Justin Morris

adjustment research in western New York suggests a 4.5 to 6.5 t·ha −1 reduction in crop yield is needed to increase harvest juice soluble solids by 1% ( Bates, 2008 ). Currently, the sliding payment increase for juice soluble solids does not match this yield

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David R. Corbin, Frederick J. Perlak, David A. Fischhoff, John T. Greenplate, Zhen Shen, and John P. Purcell

Genetically modified potato and cotton crops that express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have recently been commercialized. These crops display autonomous resistance to specific insect pests, and thus offer major agricultural and environmental benefits. We have implemented a microbial screening program to discover new types of insecticidal proteins for use in transgenic crops. New proteins with diverse modes of action offer opportunities to control insect pests that are not susceptible to Bt insecticidal proteins and to delay or prevent the potential occurrence of resistance of insects to crops genetically modified with Bt genes. Cholesterol oxidase emerged from our screen as a new insecticidal protein with potent activity against the cotton boll weevil. Cholesterol oxidase was acutely toxic to boll weevil larvae, with an LC50 of 2–6 parts per million when ingested in artificial diet feeding assays, and caused marked reductions in fecundity when ingested by adult boll weevils. Cholesterol oxidase also exerted significant, though less severe, toxicity against several lepidopteran pests. The insecticidal action of cholesterol oxidase appears to be due to oxidation of midgut epithelial membrane cholesterol followed by membrane disruption. A cholesterol oxidase gene was cloned and expressed in transgenic tobacco plants to yield plant tissue that exerted potent activity against boll weevil. Expression of this cholesterol oxidase gene in cotton plants may offer significant protection against the cotton boll weevil and may also aid in the mitigation of resistance of cotton lepidopteran pests to Bt proteins.

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Astrid Newenhouse and Helen Harrison

The primary goal of this project is to introduce various citizenry groups within Wisconsin to new and potentially profitable alternative crops and production systems, and to acquaint them with crops and ornamental which may be common in Europe and Asia but which have not been extensively grown in our region. Approximately 50 new cultivars of gourmet vegetables, edible flowers, everlasting flowers, fresh cut flowers, and ornamental grasses were field tested 3 years for their adaptability for home and market gardens in Wisconsin. Cultivars were chosen for their unique flavor, color, shape, or texture. Greenhouse grown plants were transplanted onto black plastic mulch, with an annual rye–grass living mulch planted between crop rows. Aside from carbaryl and Bacillus thuringiensis used for cole crop insect control, no chemical pesticides or herbicides were used. Data taken includes notes on production, climate adaptability, disease and insect stress, maturation date, color, taste, and texture. Regional interest has been widespread from various groups including growers for gourmet restaurants, farmers market producers, garden clubs, youth organizations, and urban gardeners..

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Lydia J. Stivers-Young and Frances A. Tucker

Surveys of vegetable growers in a six-county region in western New York were conducted in 1997 to determine which cover cropping practices were being used on commercial vegetable operations; to identify producers' needs for further research and information, and to assess the impact of cooperative extension programs in this area. In a broad survey, 118 responses were returned out of 315 surveys sent (37%). Respondents represented >37,000 acres (14974 ha) of vegetable production, or ≈53% of the vegetable acreage in the region. Vegetable acreage per operation ranged from 1 to 4000 acres (0.4 to 1619 ha). Sixty-nine percent responded that they grew cover crops on a total of 15,426 acres (6243 ha). Oats (Avena sativa L.), rye (Secale cereale), clover (Trifolium pratense), and wheat (Triticum vulgare) were the most commonly used cover crops. Seventy-six percent of the reported cover-cropped acres were planted to small grains, and 19% to legumes, almost entirely clovers. In open ended questions, the most important benefits of cover cropping identified by respondents were erosion control (46% of respondents) and organic matter additions (42%). The most important problems associated with cover crops were that they interfere with spring field work or fall harvest (26%), and that they are difficult to incorporate or plow under (24%). A targeted survey of nineteen onion (Allium cepa L.) producers in the same region measured the recent adoption of sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Piper) and sorghum-sudan hybrid (Sorghum bicolor L. × S. sudanense) cover crops, the focus of the several years of extension research and educational programs. Nine of the onion producers had adopted the practice, and six of these had done so since the beginning of these extension programs. The implications of these results for research and extension are discussed.