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susceptible cultivars ( Kikkert et al., 2010 ). The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of popular table beet cultivars to local (New York) C. beticola populations and horticultural characteristics of interest to fresh market growers

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trials and sources to compare what is known about relative field performance of the four new rootstocks, both with and without HLB. We also present information on nursery characteristics and propagation of the four rootstocks to aid nurserymen and growers

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Strawberry is an important source of early-season income on farms across New England ( Bornt et al., 1998 ; Grubinger, 2012 ), where it is estimated there are more than 1000 acres in production on 884 farms (U.S. Department of Agriculture National

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This work is the result of 3 years of collaborative research between Mississippi State Univ. and New Mexico State Univ. Physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics were studied to assess eating quality of popular New Mexico pecan (Carya illinoinensis) cultivars. The force and energy necessary to break (shear) pecan nuts, and Hunter `a' and hue angle values varied with harvest year and cultivar. All other traits, including sensory evaluation results, varied only with cultivar. `Ideal' was of light color, small size, and not as firm as the others, while `Burkett' was soft and slightly rancid. `Wichita' was the cultivar rated best by panelists, despite its slightly darker color. `Western Schley' and `Salopek' were also acceptable, although not as acceptable as `Wichita'.

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throughout the world. While most Camellia species flower in winter or spring, C. azalea , a newly discovered species, blooms during midsummer and has been introduced into the breeding systems of camellia for generating new and more summer-flowering varieties

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Common watermelons have an indeterminate growth habit with normal internode length, thus allowing the vine to grow indefinitely under the normal conditions. Watermelon breeders have identified four dwarf genes (dw-1, dw-1 s , dw-2, dw-3) and used these for developing dwarf watermelon cultivars. We discovered a naturally occurring new dwarf and seedless mutant (NDSM) from a landrace cv. Mudungsan that had been cultivated in the Mountain Mudung area nearby Gwangju City in Korea. The progenies of this mutant segregated in a ratio of 3 vine to 1 dwarf indicating a single recessive gene nature. Morphological characteristics of the NDSM were markedly different from those of the four known dwarf genotypes. NDSM plants grow shorter than 1 m in length with fan-shaped leaves and have fewer leaf lobes than normal plants, which could be clearly distinguished at 2 or 3 true leaf stage. Male and female flowers have just one petal and failed to open completely even at the anthesis. Even though there were some fertile pollen grains, the fruits of NDSM had no seed after fertilization. The F2 progenies, obtained from crossing `920533' (normal vine type) and NDSM, segregated in a ratio of 3 vine to 1 dwarf. All F1 plants from crosses between 2 dwarf types, `Sugar Bush' (dw-1dw-1) and `NH 9' (dw-2dw-2), and NDSM were normal, while F2 showed 9 vines, 3 dw-1 or dw-2 types, 3 NDSM types, and 1 double dwarf. The backcross generation segregated in a ratio of 1 vine to 1 dwarf. These results indicate that the genes for the NDSM and 2 dwarf types are non-allelic. We named this new dwarf genotype (NDSM) as dw-4 in addition to four dwarf genes previously identified.

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( Capsicum sp.) that was first discovered in New Mexico in 1918 ( Leonian, 1922 ). It causes severe losses in many bell pepper-producing areas around the United States and the world ( Bosland and Lindsey, 1991 ; García-Rodríguez et al., 2010 ; Hwang and

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Several sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars were stored in air or modified-atmosphere packages (MAP) at 1 °C for 2 or 4 weeks, respectively. The new cultivars included `Santina', `Sumpaca Celeste', `Sumnue Cristalina', `Sumste Samba', `Sandra Rose', `Sumleta Sonata', and `Skeena', and the standards were `Lapins', `Sweetheart', and `Bing'. Fruit were rated for defects (stem browning, stem shrivel and fruit surface pitting), and fruit quality at harvest and after storage. Weight loss during storage was influenced by year, storage treatment, and cultivar. Stem shrivel, stem browning, and fruit surface pitting varied among cultivars and years. Generally, fruit stored in MAP had higher fruit firmness than at harvest or when stored in air. The respiration rate of fruit was lower in later than in earlier maturing cultivars, but respiration rate at harvest was not related to any of the quality measurements taken after storage.

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Authors: , , and

Growth of apple fruit can be described as an initial exponential phase lasting the 40+ days of fruit cell division followed by a more-or-less linear phase where growth is by cell expansion. Temperature is a major influence on fruit growth rate during the cell division phase, thereby affecting fruit size at maturity. However it is generally thought that temperature has less-direct impact on fruit development during the fruit expansion phase. Our observations of apple growth among regions and seasons of considerable climatic variability led us to speculate that temperature may impact directly on fruit development during fruit expansion but that responses may be interactive with carbon balance (crop load) influences. Controlled environment studies are being used to examine this hypothesis. Potted `Royal Gala' trees set to three levels of crop (one fruit per 250, 500, or 1000 cm2 leaf area) were grown from 56 to 112 DAFB in day/night temperature regimes of 18/6, 24/12, and 30/18 °C. All trees grew in field conditions prior to and following the controlled environment treatments. Treatments were harvested when 20% to 25% of fruit on trees showed the visual indicators used commercially to indicate harvest maturity. Fruit were evaluated using attributes that determine quality and that may have implications for fruit post harvest behaviour. Temperature and crop load influences on time to maturity, fruit fresh and dry weight, fruit DM content, fruit firmness, fruit airspace content and estimated fruit cortical cell size will be presented and implications discussed.

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New four traits not yet reported were founded. One mutant plant was from a population of 81-1251-D-20M treated with EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate), which had tubular petals. This tubular petal plant had normal pollens in anthers, but could almost not produce its seeds without artificial pollination. It was controlled by one single recessive gene. One new spontaneous dwarf mutant line, R3-10, which bore seedcoatless-like seeds with short pappus, was crossed with normal breeding lines GL5 and 87-25M-2M. From F2 and F3 results, it was found that the two traits (seedcoatless-like and short pappus) were governed by each one single recessive gene. A stem lettuce type cultivar, `Baimach', seemed to be almost green, but was really tinged red, which was extremely suppressed in red color expression. Its tinged red color could not be seen, except on only very limited base parts of the stem and dorsal petal. In two F2 population experiments of the crosses of `Baimach' with `Oakleaf' and 98-43-3, it was found that the suppression of red color expression in `Baimach' was caused by a single recessive gene. It looked different from that of gene “v” (vanishing) by Lindqvist, because the red color of plants with “v” gene of Lindqvist were typically tinged and could be identified easily at a young plant stage, but not that of `Baimach'. I designated these new four genes as Tu-tu (Tu = normal, tu = tubular petal), Pp-pp (Pp = normal, pp = short pappus), Scl-scl (Scl = normal, scl = seedcoatless-like), and In-in (In = normal, in = inhibiting red color expression extremely).

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