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consumer behavior toward pollinator insects or their interactions with neonic insecticides. Neonic insecticides are of particular interest due to controversial research findings and negative publicity ( US-EPA, 2013 ). Neonics provide systemic protection to

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greenhouse for analysis of pollen and seed germination and DNA content. Three cultivars that demonstrated sterility in our test plot, ‘Crispa’, ‘Dart's Red’, and ‘Neon Flash’, were further tested through hand-pollinations in the greenhouse. For these

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greenhouse environment. Between 3 and 6 June 2013, seeds of ‘Campana Deep Blue’ bellflower, ‘Bombay Firosa’ celosia, ‘Amazon Neon Purple’ dianthus, ‘Fireworks’ gomphrena, ‘Vegmo Snowball Extra’ matricaria, and ‘Potomac Lavender’ snapdragon (PanAmerican Seed

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separated using least significant difference test at P ≤ 0.05. Year 1. ‘Aurora Deep Purple’ delphinium, ‘Imperial Giants Pink Perfection’ larkspur, ‘Column Lilac Lavender’ stock, and ‘Amazon Neon Duo’ sweet william seeds were sown on 9 Jan. Plants were

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field-grown flower production The following dahlia cultivars were grown during our trial: Café au Lait, Café au Lait Rose, Burlesca (Fleur Farm, East Dorset, VT, USA); Cornel, Clearview Daniel, Lollipop, Neon Splendor, Tanjoh (Swan Island Dahlias

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., Morgan Hill, CA), and Dianthus ‘Amazon Neon Cherry’ (PanAmerican Seed) seeds were sown into 105-cell plug trays (28-mL individual cell volume; T.O. Plastics, Inc., Clearwater, MN) filled with a commercial soilless medium composed of ≈70% Canadian

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trays, whereas petunias ( Petunia × hybrida ) ‘Easy Wave Neon Rose’ were sown in 288-cell plug trays by commercial propagators (Tagawa Greenhouses, Inc., Brighton, CO, or Dickman Farms, Auburn, NY). On receipt, on 12 Oct. 2016 (Expt. 1, all species), 14

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Conventional herbicide applications to container-grown landscape plants, often requires multiple spray applications of herbicides in a growing season and presents problems such as non-uniform application, leaching, run-off, environmental pollution, worker exposure and phytotoxicity to the landscape plants. The use of an organic herbicide carrier could help reduce some of the problems associated with spray applications. Landscape-leaf waste pellets were evaluated as a preemergent herbicide carrier for container-grown landscape plants. Isoxaben, prodiamine and pendimethalin were applied to Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum `Lisa', Euonymus fortunei `Coloratus' and Spiraea japonica `Neon Flash', at rates of 1.12, 2.25, and 2.25 kg·ha-1 active ingredient, respectively, with either water or landscape leaf waste pellets as a carrier. Portulaca oleracea, Senecio vulgaris, and Setaria faberi were seeded following treatment application. Visual ratings on efficacy and photoxicity to landscape plants, and shoot fresh and dry biomass were determined for both weeds and crop plants. Landscape leaf pellets served as an effective carrier for application of prodiamine and pendimethalin and combinations of these herbicides with isoxaben in controlling weeds. Leaf waste pellets as a carrier produced equivalent weed control and phytotoxicity ratings to conventional spray application of these herbicides, on both Chrysanthemum and Euonymus. The pellets did not make a consistently effective carrier for the application of isoxaben alone. Application of herbicides on leaf pellets could result in more uniform herbicide applications, minimize loss of herbicides to the environment and reduce the risk of herbicide contact with nursery workers.

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Landscape trials were conducted to evaluate 235 cultivars within 66 species in central Mississippi. All entries were grown from seed or vegetatively propagated material. Raised landscape beds were prepared using accepted regional methods. Planting into beds began on 4 April and was completed on 20 April. Plants were given an overall rating based on insect resistance, disease resistance, vigor, flowering, and foliage color. Each cultivar was rated bimonthly until early August when pruning or termination was necessary, depending on each cultivar, at which time rating frequency became once a month through the first freeze. The rating range was 0 to 5, where 5 is optimum and 0 is death. Height (cm) was measured for each cultivar at the same intervals as performance ratings. Heights were recorded to show the average height of each cultivar. No herbicides were applied; handweeding controlled weeds. No insecticides were applied to plants with the exception of the hibiscus where there was severe pressure from sawfly larva. In 2005 central Mississippi experienced a very hot and dry summer. Strong winds and heavy rains in late August and early September associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita took their toll on the trial, especially many of the taller cultivars. The top performing cultivars for 2005 were `Intensia Lilac Rose' phlox (Phlox ×), Proven Winners; `Intensia Neon Pink' phlox (Phlox ×), Proven Winners; `Elliottii Wind Dancer' grass (Eragrostis curvula), Pan American Seed; `Intensia Lavender Glow' phlox (Phlox ×), Proven Winners; `Dolce Licorice' heuchera (Heuchera ×), Proven Winners; `Diamond Frost' euphorbia (Euphorbia ×), Proven Winners; `Gold Flake' mecardonia (Mecardonia ×), Proven Winners; `Titan Polka Dot' annual vinca (Catharanthus roseus), Ball Seed; `Sun Fan' scaevola (Scaevola aemula), Proven Winners; `Golden Delicious' salvia (Salvia elegans), Proven Winners.

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making this decision, there is a need to better understand the production costs of these systems. A group of university researchers, nonprofit agencies, and farmers from the northeastern United States [Northeast Organic Network (NEON)] used an intensive

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