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Charles E. Barrett, Xin Zhao and Alan W. Hodges

Sorribas, 2008 ). However, grafting in the United States has not yet reached its full potential as a control for soil-borne pathogens and nematodes. It has been estimated that 40 million grafted vegetable transplants are currently used in the United States

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R. McSorley

As an agroecosystem makes the transition from conventional to organic practices, changes in the pest management tactics used are often apparent. Despite varying degrees of efficacy among tactics, the issue of whether or not numbers of insect and nematode pests and their damage will become more severe in an organic system depends on the specifics of the pests and crops involved. Although many conventional systems rely on reactive strategies to deal with pest problems, an alternative approach is to redesign systems so that plant health is maximized, regardless of pest numbers, although this approach takes planning and time. An abrupt transition from conventional to organic may be risky if pest numbers are high and alternative practices are not yet in place. Hybrid systems, involving decreasing levels of conventional tactics and increasing levels of organic tactics, may be needed before the transitional period begins, in order to bridge the gap and lessen the impact of crop losses during the transitional period. The design of cropping systems with minimal pest impact requires a much more extensive and specific knowledge base than needed for reactive strategies.

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Brad Geary, Corey Ransom, Brad Brown, Dennis Atkinson and Saad Hafez

the management of Columbia root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi on tomato under greenhouse conditions Nematropica 29 171 177 Hartz, T.K. Bogle, C.R. Bender, D.A. Avila, F.A. 1989 Control of pink root disease in onion using solarization and

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Susan L.F. Meyer, Inga A. Zasada, Shannon M. Rupprecht, Mark J. VanGessel, Cerruti R.R. Hooks, Matthew J. Morra and Kathryne L. Everts

Deregistration of synthetic chemical pesticides has increased the need for alternative management strategies directed at soilborne diseases and pests. One alternative available to conventional and organic growers is incorporation of mustard seed

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J. Farías-Larios, J.G. López-Aguirre, J.L. Miranda and L.A. Bayardo-Vizcaino

Acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) is a small, red fruit that is native to the West Indies, but is also grown in South and Central America. In western Mexico, this crop is very important because acerola is the richest known natural source of vitamin C, with a content of 1000 to 4500 mg/100 g of fruit. In nursery and field conditions, acerola growth is severely affected by root-knot nematode. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial formulations of Bacillus spp. on root-knot nematode management. This study was carried out in the Farm Santa Clara Maria in Colima State. Acerola plants, 60 days old were used. They were grown in 3-L pots with soil, compost, and pumice stone mixture as substrate. Treatments evaluated were: 5, 10, 15 and 30 mL/pot of Activate 2001, Tri-Mat (5 mL/pot) and control, without application. Activate 2001® is a concentrated liquid in water suspension of Bacillus chitinosporus, B. laterosporus, and B. licheniformis. Initial nematode population was of 3,305 in 50 g of roots. Acerola plants were harvested at 30, 60, and 90 days after application. Results show that Activate 2001 at 10 and 30 mL rates reduce significantly root-knot populations in acerola plants 60 days after application with 135 and 178 nematodes/50 g of roots, respectively. Diameter stem, shoot fresh and dry weight and root production were also increased by rhizobacteria application. These results are promising and confirmed the potential of Bacillus as a biological agent for nematode management.

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Susan L.F. Meyer, Inga A. Zasada, Mario Tenuta and Daniel P. Roberts

The biosolid soil amendment N-Viro Soil (NVS) and a Streptomyces isolate (S 99-60) were tested for effects on root-knot nematode [RKN (Meloidogyne incognita)] egg populations on cantaloupe (Cucumis melo). Application of 3% NVS (dry weight amendment/dry weight soil) in the soil mixture resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.01) suppression of RKN egg numbers on cantaloupe roots compared to all other treatments, including 1% NVS and untreated controls. Ammonia accumulation was higher with the 3% NVS amendment than with any other treatment. Adjustment of soil pH with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] to the same levels that resulted from NVS amendment did not suppress nematode populations. When cultured in yeast-malt extract broth and particularly in nutrient broth, S 99-60 was capable of producing a compound(s) that reduced RKN egg hatch and activity of second-stage juveniles. However, when this isolate was applied to soil and to seedling roots, no suppression of RKN egg populations was observed on cantaloupe roots. Combining S 99-60 with NVS or Ca(OH)2 did not result in enhanced nematode suppression compared to treatments applied individually. The results indicated that NVS application was effective at suppressing RKN populations through the accumulation of ammonia to levels lethal to the nematode in soil.

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Jennifer Moore-Kucera, Anita Nina Azarenko, Lisa Brutcher, Annie Chozinski, David D. Myrold and Russell Ingham

effects of land management practices on soil health. These include analysis of soil organic matter (SOM) concentrations, nematode faunal composition ( Ferris et al., 2001 ), enzyme activities ( Acosta-Martinez et al., 2003 ; Bandick and Dick, 1999

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Carl Sams, Robert Steiner, Stephen H. Thomas, Stephanie Walker and Mark E. Uchanski

Mexico Chile Assn. 33 1 8 Westphal, A. 2011 Sustainable approaches to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes and disease complexes J. Nematol. 43 122 125

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Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, Richard Hassell and Judy Thies

-knot nematodes in the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Interest in vegetable grafting has recently grown in the United States as an alternative to soil fumigants and as an integrated pest management practice in various crop production systems ( Kubota et al., 2008

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Andrew P. Nyczepir and Bruce W. Wood

importance of preplant fumigation as a key component of the 10-point Management Program of PTSL ( Brittain and Miller, 1978 ). However, 3 months later (June 2007), the nematode population density increased greatly in the fumigated plots and did not differ