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Chunlian Jin, Dan Sun, Chang Wei, Zhenhua Guo, Chunmei Yang, and Fan Li

been reported. In the present study, we analyzed the natural products of G. paniculata stem extract and screened phytochemicals with potential bioactivities by GC-MS. The antioxidative capacity of the medicinal part, the stem, was also evaluated for

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Allen V. Barker

Natural Products from Plants, Second Edition. Leland J. Cseke, Ara Kirakosyan, Peter B. Kaufman, Sara L. Warber, James A. Duke, and Harry A. Brielmann (Editors). 2006. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL. 611 p. $149.95, hardcover. ISBN

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Usha Palaniswamy and Zafar Bokhari

Zafi Beverages, Inc., envisioned energy drinks, mineral natural water, healthy drinks for kids, exotic drinks, flavored drinks, and cholesterol-reducing tea. Emphasis is on non-carbonation and the use of herbal extracts. Consumption of carbonated drinks can lead to reflux, ulcer, and other stomach problems. Zafi Beverages is also developing a unique marketing approach for its products, offering a niche for small businesses and entrepreneurs. Zafi's educational process of entrepreneurship also covers the steps on the road to success: innovative, value-creating, and growth-oriented. Emphasis is also placed on ethical marketing. Small businesses employ 53% of the total private nonfarm work force, contribute to 47% of all sales in the country, are responsible for 51% of the gross domestic product (GDP), produce about two out of every three new jobs each year, and account for over half of United States GDP. Studies report that 40% of the top 1% of the wealthiest Americans got there by building a small business. Interest in small business is increasing, because many Americans believe this is one of the best paths to riches in the United States. About 16 million Americans are in some type of part- or full-time entrepreneurial activity. Entrepreneurship is attractive to people of all ages. Some unique contributions of small business concepts promoted by Zafi Beverages are to encourage innovation and flexibility, maintain close relationships with customers and community, and provide employees with comprehensive learning experience, develop risk-takers, generate new employment, and provide greater job satisfaction. Zafi Beverages is 2 years old; its growth and challenges in the development of herbal drinks for health and new entrepreneurs are described.

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William J. Bramlage, Zhiguo Ju, and Thomas L. Potter

Diphenylamine (DPA) is applied postharvest to apples and pears to control scald development after storage. Using GC - MS analyses of hexane extracts of fruit surfaces, about 0.1 ug/g of DPA was measured on apples after 7 months of storage, even though no fruit in the storage were treated with DPA. Residues also were present on walls in the storage rooms. There is a report that DPA can be produced in plants. Therefore, fruit of 5 cvs. were harvested in mid-August and at commercial maturity and immediately extracted for measurement. A signal similar to that of DPA was detected in all extracts, but concentrations were too low for positive identification. Results show that presence of DPA residue on stored fruit is not proof that DPA was applied before storage. Extracts from freshly harvested fruit are being concentrated to try to ascertain the identity of the indicated material(s).

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Barbara R. Bingaman and Nick E. Christians

Corn (Zea mays L.) gluten meal (CGM) was evaluated under greenhouse conditions for efficacy on 22 selected monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weed species. Corn gluten meal was applied at 0, 324, 649, and 973 g·m–2 and as a soil-surface preemergence (PRE) and preplant-incorporated (PPI) weed control product. CGM reduced plant survival, shoot length, and root development of all tested species. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.), curly dock (Rumex crispus L.), purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) were the most susceptible species. Plant survival and root development for these species were reduced by ≥75%, and shoot length was decreased by >50% when treated PRE and PPI with 324 g CGM/m2. Catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine L.), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber), giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.), and smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl] exhibited survival and shoot length reductions >50% and an 80% reduction in root development when treated with PPI CGM at 324 g·m–2. Barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.] and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) were the least susceptible species showing survival reductions ≤31% when treated with 324 g CGM/m2.

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Chien Wang, Korakot Chanjirakul, Shiow Wang, and Jingtair Siriphanich

The effect of naturally occurring volatile compounds on decay and antioxidant activities in fresh-cut papayas (Carica papaya L.) was studied. Exposure to methyl jasmonate (MJ), methyl salicylate (MS) or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) substantially delayed the onset and reduced the severity of decay during and after storage at 5 °C. Treatment with tea tree oil (TTO) or ethanol (ETOH) was also effective in retarding decay, but to a lesser extent. No beneficial effect was obtained with the use of vinegar vapor. MJ and MS increased oxygen radical absorbance capacity and elevated the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and superoxide dismutase. The nonenzyme components in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were also increased by MJ and MS treatments, including ascorbate and glutathione. It is possible that MJ and MS treatments enhanced the antioxidant system and increased the resistance of tissue to decay. However, while AITC also suppressed the development of decay in papaya slices, it had little effect on antioxidant levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. Apparently, AITC exerted its effect through different mechanisms. Studies are in progress to determine if AITC inhibits decay directly via its antimicrobial properties.

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Bruce W. Wood, Rufus Chaney, and Mark Crawford

1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail bwwood@saa.ars.usda.gov Mention of a trademark, proprietary product, or vendor does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the US

Open access

Lyn A. Gettys, Kyle L. Thayer, and Joseph W. Sigmon

herbicides. Products used for natural weed control include acids [i.e., acetic acid (vinegar) and citric acid], oils [clove (eugenol) ( Syzygium aromaticum ), pine ( Pinus sp.), peppermint ( Mentha × piperita ), and citronella ( Cymbopogon sp.)], soaps

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Hayk Khachatryan and Alicia Rihn

, respondents likely connected reduced pesticides or “safer” pesticides (i.e., organic or natural) as being less hazardous to pollinator insects. Often the terms “organic” and “natural” are perceived as “safer” than conventional products ( Campbell et al., 2014

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Wiley Carroll Johnson III and Jerry W. Davis

consistent than clove oil or other herbicides derived from natural products. Additionally, a commercial product containing pelargonic acid was previously registered for use in certified organic crop production on a limited basis. It is possible that