clearcut and diseases. This cultivar (natural mutant) possessing side flowers and bicolored floral discs is unique to our knowledge in Paeoniaceae ( Li, 2005 ; Page, 2005 ; Rogers, 1995 ; Wang, 1998 ). It is not only an outstanding ornamental, but also a
Zhi-li Suo, Xiao-qing Zhao, Jian-peng Zhao, Xiao-chong Zhao, and Fu-fei Chen
Eliezer S. Louzada and Chandrika Ramadugu
. Grapefruit with golden flesh color, presumably a natural mutant from a seedy, white grapefruit resembling ‘Duncan’. Fig. 4. Origin of major grapefruit (GF) cultivars. (A) Cultivars developed by sexual hybridization. Parentage of selected hybrids is
Zhi-li Suo, Xiao-qing Zhao, Jing-yu Sun, and Wen-hai Sun
by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 30470177) and by a Knowledge Innovation Project from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (kscx2-sw-108). This study is also a part of work of a joint-operated program with the People's Government
Xuan Huang and Liangjun Zhao*
As well as investigating physiological characteristics of the new yellow cultivar of Celtis julianae—`Golden Phoenix' (Julian hackberry, which originally distributed in south of China, is important environmental plant, because there are numerous hairs on surfaces of the leaf, which can absorb dust and clean the air. Julian hackberry is deciduous big tree, more than 25 meters in high, with deep green leaf, red flower and orange fruit, blossoming in April.), differences in leaf color between the new cultivar and the normal Celtis julianae were evaluated. The new cultivar is a natural seed mutant from some cultivated seedlings of Celtis julianae found in 2001. It has golden yellow leaf, average color is Yellow-Green150A mensurating by English Color Card, is significantly more different than those of the normal. It can normally growing but slowly, with smaller plant-size and shorter internode than common plant. The new cultivar's leaf contains less chlorophyll than the normal, but same carotenoid. Its net photosynthetic rate is lower than that of Julian hackberry common cultivates in full sunlight. Shading of leaf to 50% sunlight decreases chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate compared with full sunlight and sharper in photosynthetic, resulting in deepen green color. Leaves of the new cultivar show higher values of lightness and yellow-green as compared with other normal. Shoot multiplication frequency was highest on woody plant medium containing 1.5 mg 6-BA(benzyladenine)/ml, producing 6 shoots from a single explant, but these are some troubles to root.
Chunlin Xiao and Mosbah M. Kushad
5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) nucleosidase (EC.188.8.131.52) and 5-methylthioribose (MTR) kinase (EC.184.108.40.206) activities were evaluated in `rin', `nor', and `Rutgers' tomato fruit during development and ripening. Changes in the activities of these enzymes were compared to ethylene biosynthesis. MTA nucleosidase and MTR kinase activities in `rin' and `nor' were ≈30% and 22%, respectively, lower than `Rutgers' during the first 2 weeks of fruit development. In `Rutgers', activities of these enzymes declined sharply until fruit maturity. Shortly before climacteric rise in ethylene synthesis, MTA nucleosidase, and MTR kinase activities increased, reaching a maximum level before peak ethylene synthesis then declined when fruit started to approach senescence. Whereas, `rin' and `nor' mutants exhibited no climacteric rise in ethylene synthesis and no change in MTA nucleosidase or MTR kinase activities, following their decline after 2 weeks of growth. A rapid increase in ethylene synthesis was observed when mature green `rin' and `nor' fruit were wounded. This increase in ethylene was paralleled by an increase in MTA nucleosidase and MTR kinase activities. However, increase in wound ethylene, MTA nucleosidase, and MTR kinase activities in `rin' and `nor' was ≈40% less than what we had previously reported in `Rutgers'. Relationship of MTA and MTR kinase activities to fruit growth, development, ripening, and natural and wound ethylene biosynthesis will be described.
Linghe Zeng and Wm. Vance Baird
Dinitroaniline herbicides exert their phytotoxic effect by interfering with tubulin dimer polymerization; thus, these and other anti-mitotic drugs destabilize cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules. The dinitroanilines are particularly effective on monocotyledonous species. A naturally occurring mutant of goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.], resistant (R) to the DNHs, and the widely distributed susceptible, wild-type (S) have been collected from a number of agricultural sites throughout the southeastern U.S. Pairs of these accessions were cross-pollinated to create F1 individuals, from which F2 and F3 generations were developed through natural self-pollination. Analysis of the dinitroaniline herbicide response phenotype (DRP) has shown the F1s to be susceptible, and the F2 and F3 to be segregating 3:1 for susceptibility and resistance, respectively (i.e., 3S:1R). This genetic data is consistent with the DRP being encoded by a single, nuclear locus. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of a segregating F2 population (N = 60), which identified 32 linked and 33 unlinked molecular markers, supports this hypothesis of simple Mendelian inheritance. Furthermore, this RAPD analysis coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, localized the DRP locus to a single chromosomal region and identified two RAPD-markers, and at least one RFLP-marker, flanking the DRP locus. This information provides a starting point for map-based (i.e., positional) cloning of the resistance (DRP r) and susceptibility (DRP s) alleles.
A. Mendoza-Wilson, J. Siller, E. Bringas, J. Ojeda, J. M. Báez, and R. Báez-Sanudo
Ripening mutant gene rin (ripening inhibitor) in tomato inhibits, or greatly slows down, a wide range of processes related to ripening of the fruit, leading to a markedly extended shelf life. Although the use of films or coatings has been shown to retard ripening, the natural film that covers the fruit and delimits interchange with the environment, the cuticle, has not been well-characterized and related to ripening. The objective of this work was to characterize cuticle changes and establish their relationship with respiratory behavior. Turning tomato fruits with the gene rin, selection S-164 and normal tomato fruits were stored under marketing conditions (20C; 65% to 70% RH) to determine cuticular and physiological changes. Parameters evaluated were: cuticular weight changes (CW), permeability, soluble cuticular lipids (SCL), and epicuticular waxes (EW). In addition CO2 production was monitored every other day. Normal fruit increased in CW from 1.17 to 1.30 mg·/cm–2 and its EW from 11.49 to 24.49 μg·cm–2. On the other hand, rin tomatoes declined in CW and EW during storage. Both kind of fruits decreased their SCL content. Normal tomatoes exhibited the characteristic climacteric peak and showed an increase of cuticle permeability, while in rin tomatoes, these changes were not expressed.
Nuananong Purente, Bin Chen, Xiaowei Liu, Yunwei Zhou, and Miao He
. Kushwaha, R. Shearer, A. Downie, A.B. Crocker, M. DeBolt, S. 2013 Sorghum mutant RG displays antithetic leaf shoot lignin accumulation resulting in improved stem saccharification properties Biotechnol. Biofuels 6 146 Saheb, D. Jog, J. 1999 Natural fiber
I-Chun Pan, Ya-Fen Lu, Pei-Jung Wen, and Yen-Ming Chen
cultivation using the same method mentioned previously. The surviving mutants were continuously cultivated in a natural short day for the convenience of subsequent investigation on plant morphology. Investigating the traits of colchicine-induced mutants. The
Shaoyun Lu, Zhongcheng Wang, Yuejing Niu, Zhenfei Guo, and Bingru Huang
loss exhibited no difference among the tested mutant lines and the wild-type control. Its decrease at days 2 and 3 might reflect the influence of weather, as the plants were grown under natural sunlight, whereas the great decrease at days 7 and 8