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pronounced than that with the application of JA. The combined application of JA+AMF resulted in higher contents of K, Ca, N, Mg, and P compared with those resulting from the use of growth regulators without mycorrhiza. Under severe and moderate drought stress

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2010 to 2 Sept. 2010; Expt. 2 (arbuscular mycorrhiza experiment) from 2 May 2010 to 31 Aug. 2010; and Expt. 3 (salinity experiment) from 2 May 2010 to 31 Aug. 2010. In all experiments, plants were grown under natural light conditions. The greenhouse was

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Abstract

‘Jersey’ blueberry plants were greenhouse-grown through 1 season with treatments consisting of a factorial combination of 4 soil factors: inoculation with a mycorrhiza-forming fungus; high or low nutrient regime; with or without leachate from a native blueberry soil; and soil porosities corresponding to a clayey, silty, or sandy, and a native blueberry soil, Berryland, as a standard comparison. Although very low in nutrient elements, Berryland soil or its leachate significantly increased plant growth. There was no significant effect on growth from mycorrhizal inoculation at either high or low nutrient levels and only a slight effect from varying the soil free-pore space.

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The study of mycorrhizas of fruit trees was carried out in the 1980s in China. More progress has been made in resources, taxonomy, anatomy and morphology, physiology, ecology, effects, and application of mycorrhizas in fruit trees. The present status and research trends in the study of fruit tree mycorrhizas in China were introduced, and the application prospects of mycorrhizas in fruit tree cultivation also were discussed.

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The first outbreak of fire blight incited by Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al. occurred on pome fruits in Turkey in 1985, and it is now one of the most serious diseases of pear, apple, quince, and loquat (Oktem and Benlioglu, 1988). In this study, experiments were conducted in Konya Province to evaluate the efficacy of Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and bactericides for control of the shoot blight phase of fire blight and control of shoot growth on the different apple cultivars (Gala, Red Elstar, Pinova, Jonagored) on M9 rootstock in 2002 to 2003. Streptomycin provided 84.38% to 95.24% and 85.28% to 89.97% disease control in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Copper complex was not so effective against shoot blight phase of the disease, and it reduced disease by 16.18% to 27.75% and 14.48% to 19.06% in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Results of VAM application were encouraging, indicating a reduction of fire blight by Glomus intraradices of between 9.7% and 50.5% in 2002 and between 23.9% and 48.4% in 2003, respectively.

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The productivity of marginal soils frequently found in the arid tropics might be improved by using VAM fungi as “biofertilizer” and as a tool of sustainable agricultural systems. Study of mycorrhizas of fruit trees was performed in 1987 in western Mexico. More progress has been made in resources, taxonomy, anatomy and morphology, physiology, ecology, effects, and application of mycorrhizas in fruit trees and ornamental plants production. Currently, five genera has been identified and inoculated plants showed significant difference in respect to plants not inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. Citrus trees were highly dependent on mycorrhizae for normal growth and development, while the banana plants showed lower levels of root colonization by different strains of VAM fungi. The added endomycorrhizal inoculum significantly increased root fungal colonization in fruit trees and reduce the time in nursery. The current status and research trends in the study of fruit tree mycorrhizas in western Mexico are introduced, and the application prospects in sustainable agriculture also are discussed.

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Growth recovery of mycorrhizal (VAM) and nonmycorrhizal (non-VAM) neem plants after drought exposure were followed under low phosphorus conditions. Drought significantly decreased plant growth regardless of mycorrhiza. Relative growth rate of droughted plants was greater than nondroughted plants during the growth recovery period, and compensated the loss of growth during the previous drought. VAM increased plant growth and improved regeneration of new roots outside the original root balls, particularly in plants previously exposed to drought. New roots of VAM plants were readily colonized by the VAM fungi, while those of non-VAM plants remained uncolonized. VAM growth enhancement after drought exposure was associated with greater uptake of phosphorus and other nutrients, and improved root regeneration.

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-promoting bacteria (PGPB) on root length of walnut seedlings under normal and drought stress conditions. The simultaneous application of G. etunicatum mycorrhiza and PGPB further increased root length significantly. Mycorrhiza and symbiotic bacteria combined

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using XLSTAT pro statistical analysis software (Addinsoft, New York, NY). Results AMF root colonization. Microscope observations confirmed that the noninoculated plants were not colonized by G. intraradices . Percentage mycorrhiza colonization showed a

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inoculated with mycorrhiza by placing a teaspoon (7 g) of Mycoroot TM granules into the planting holes; then one seedling was placed into the hole. About 100 propagules, with a minimum of 10 spores per gram comprising four AMF species, Glomus etunicatum

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