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Edward E. Carey, Lewis Jett, William J. Lamont Jr, Terrance T. Nennich, Michael D. Orzolek, and Kimberly A. Williams

sometimes called hoop houses or unheated greenhouses and they include a range of designs from single-span to multi-span structures that are usually covered with a single layer of 6-mil polyethylene greenhouse film. High tunnels may be constructed to be

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Gregory A. Lang

multi-bay high tunnels to sweet cherry orchards, following the successful reversal of declining U.K. strawberry culture by improving the production environment under tunnels (G. Moore, personal communication). Multi-bay high tunnels generally are used

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William L. Bauerle and Joseph D. Bowden

The boundary layer governs the diffusion of gases between vegetation and the atmosphere at the leaf and whole crown scale. Although Prandtl is credited with the introduction of boundary layer theory in 1904 ( Schlichting and Gersten, 2004 ), the

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Hardeep Singh, Bruce Dunn, Niels Maness, Lynn Brandenberger, Lynda Carrier, and Bizhen Hu

produced ≈1.09 million tons of fresh market tomatoes and 12.8 million tons of processing tomatoes on 321,900 acres with a total value of about $1.85 billion ( Cornell University, 2018 ). This production area included different production systems such as

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Ian-Huei Yau, Joan R. Davenport, and Michelle M. Moyer

The IPNW has emerged as a premium European wine grape growing region with Washington State as the dominant producer. Washington is second only to California in wine grape production in the United States [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2011a

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Kenneth G. McCabe, James A. Schrader, Samy Madbouly, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

, 2013 ; Schrader et al., 2013 ; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2013 ). Most containers used for commercial crop production are used only once and discarded by either the grower or the consumer. Only 8.8% of the plastic waste generated in the United

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Zhi Quan, Bin Huang, Caiyan Lu, Yi Shi, Yanhong Cao, Yongzhuang Wang, Chuanrui He, Guangyu Chi, Jian Ma, and Xin Chen

soil layer). Due to the low density of roots below 20 cm in shallow-rooted vegetable production systems, enhanced TEN and TN accumulation in deep soil layers under application of manures would contribute to N leaching ( Fan et al., 2010 ; Yasuor et al

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Rahmatallah Gheshm and Rebecca Nelson Brown

(cormlet) multiplication. Corms are formed during vegetative growth in the spring, and flower buds are initiated before the onset of summer dormancy ( Begoña et al., 2021 ). Fig. 1. The production cycle of saffron crocus. Saffron production starts

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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, Robert Turnbull, James T.S. Walker, Richard Volz, Allan White, Vincent Bus, Dave Rogers, Lyn Cole, Natalie How, Sarah Guernsey, and Jason Johnston

, C. Balazs, K. 1997 Spiders of the foliage and herbaceous layer of an IPM apple orchard in Kecskemet–Szarkas, Hungary Biol. Agr. Hort. 5 131 140 Sanchez, E.E. 2005 Organic fruit production in South

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WEED MANAGEMENT IN APPLE PRODUCTION Derr ( p. 11 ) summarizes the impact of weeds on apple tree growth and yield, and discusses orchard weed control systems. Weeds compete with fruit trees for water, nutrients, light and pollination