In an apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard with a severe replant problem, tree size was increased by the 2nd year and number of fruit by the 3rd year by treating the planting hole soil with formalin or mancozeb plus monoammonium phosphate (MAP) fertilizer. Growth increases were evident each year for 4 years only for the MAP + formalin treatment. In a second orchard, with a less severe replant problem, planting-hole treatment with formalin or dazomet + MAP increased tree size by year 2. Number of fruit in year 2 was increased by formalin and mancozeb + MAP treatments, although this effect persisted in year 3 only for mancozeb + MAP. Leaf P concentrations were increased to high values in the first year by MAP fertilization but declined in subsequent years. Leaf Mn concentration also increased in one orchard, a consequence of fertilizer-induced acidification of planting hole soil and Mn uptake from the fungicide mancozeb. Chemical names used: tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2 H -l,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione (dazomet); 37% aqueous solution formaldehyde (formalin); Zn, Mn ethylene dithiocarbamate (mancozeb).
G.H. Neilsen and J. Yorston
Renae E. Moran and James R. Schupp
'Macoun'/B.9 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) trees were planted in May 1998 in ± compost or ± monoammonium phosphate (MAP) for a total of four preplant treatments: 1) 90 g phosphorus (P) per tree, 2) 128 kg compost per tree, 3) 90 g P and 128 kg compost per tree, and 4) and an untreated control. MAP did not increase tree growth or yield in any year of the study. Compost increased canopy width into the sixth year after planting, and increased tree height and trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) into the seventh year. Annual yield was increased by compost in the fifth and seventh years, but not fourth or sixth year after planting. Compost increased cumulative yield in the sixth and seventh years.
Renae E. Moran and James R. Schupp
'Macoun'/Budagovsky 9 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) trees were planted in May 1998 in one of four preplant treatments that were soil incorporation of: 1) control, no phosphorus (P); 2) 90 g P per tree; 3) 128 kg compost per tree; and 4) 90 g P and 128 kg compost per tree. Preplant addition of P had no effect on soil organic matter, P, magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) in the first three seasons after planting, but lowered soil potassium (K) in the second season. Foliar nutrients, tree growth and flowering were also not affected by P. The addition of compost increased soil organic matter and P in the first season after planting, and pH, K, Mg, and Ca in the first three seasons. The addition of compost increased foliar nitrogen and K in all three seasons, and decreased foliar Mg in the first season. Compost incorporation increased shoot length in the first season, trunk cross-sectional area in the first two seasons, tree height and the number of growing points in third season, and flowering in the third and fourth seasons. Compost addition was more effective than P fertilization for increasing tree growth during the establishment years.
Janet C. Cole and John M. Dole
by Greenleaf Nursery Co. and coated and uncoated monoammonium phosphate was provided by Pursell Industries. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be
Antònia Ninot, Agustí Romero, Joan Tous, and Ignasi Batlle
monoammonium phosphate (MAP; 12N–61P–0K) 300 mg·L −1 ethephon + 30 g·L −1 MKP (0N–52P–34K) 300 mg·L −1 ethephon + 30 g·L −1 MKP 500 mg·L −1 ethephon + 15 g·L −1 MAP 500 mg·L −1 ethephon + 15 g·L −1 MKP 500 mg·L −1 ethephon + 30 g·L −1 MKP In 2008, in
Timothy L. Creger and Frank J. Peryea
Fruit trees grown in soils contaminated with lead arsenate (PbHAsO4) pesticide residues are subject to arsenic (As) phytotoxicity, a condition that may be exacerbated by use of phosphate fertilizers. A potted soil experiment was conducted to examine the influence of phosphate fertilizer on accumulation of As and lead (Pb) in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seedlings grown in a lead arsenate-contaminated Burch loam coil. Treatments were fertilizer source (mono-ammonium phosphate [MAP], ammonium hydrogen sulfate [AHS]) and rate (0, 8.7, 17.4, and 26.1 -mmol/liter), and presence/absence of lead, arsenate contamination (231 -mg/kg coil). Plant biomass accumulation was reduced by lead arsenate presence and by high fertilizer rates, the latter due to soil salinization. Phytoaccumulation of As was enhanced by lead arsenate presence and by increasing MAP rate but was not influenced by AHS rate, salinity, or acidity of soil. Phytoaccumulation of Pb was enhanced by lead arsenate presence but was not influenced by fertilizer treatment.
J.M. Smagula and S. Dunham
Lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) in three commercial fields were treated with 67.2 kg P/ha from triple super phosphate(TSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), or diammonium phosphate (DAP), and compared to a control in a randomized complete block design with 12 blocks. Correction of P deficiency by fertilizers with different ratios of P to N was assessed by leaf and stem nutrient concentrations and contents (concentration × weight). Samples of stems collected in July from three 0.03 m2 quadrates per treatment plot indicated MAP and DAP had no effect on dry weight of stem tissue, but increased average dry weight of leaf tissue. Leaf nutrient concentrations and contents showed similar results; P and N were raised to higher levels by MAP and DAP than by TSP. TSP had no effect on leaf N concentration or content but raised leaf P concentration but not content, compared to controls.
G.H. Neilsen, P. Parchomchuk, W.D. Wolk, and O.L. Lau
Abbreviations: MAP, monoammonium phosphate; SSC, soluble solids concentration. 1 Research Scientists. 2 Okanagan Federated Shippers Assn. Kelowna, B.C. Contribution no. 809 of Agriculture Canada Research Station, Summerland, B.C. We acknowledge the
T.L. Creger and F.J. Peryea
Phosphate fertilizer additions to soils containing lead arsenate (LA) pesticide residues can increase As volubility. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) rootstock liners were grown in nondraining pots containing Burch loam soil that received a factorial treatment combination: 1) LA enrichment [no added LA (-LA), and LA added at 138 mg Pb/kg and 50 mg As/kg (+LA)]; 2) fertilizer type [monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and its sulfur analog ammonium hydrogen sulfate (AHS)]; and 3) fertilizer anion rate (0-26.1 mol/m3 soil). Measured response variables were soil salinity and pH, plant biomass, and plant As and Pb concentrations. Both MAP and AHS increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) and decreased soil pH, with AHS usually being more salinizing and acidifying than MAP was at equivalent rates. Adding LA reduced shoot and root mass and increased As and Pb concentration in shoots and roots. Shoot and root mass were inversely related to soil EC in the -LA soil but not in the +LA soil. Adding MAP increased shoot and root As concentration in the +LA soil, but adding AHS had no effect. Fertilizer type and rate did not influence shoot As concentration or root Pb concentration in the -LA soil or shoot Pb concentration in either the +LA or -LA soil. Adding AHS to the +LA soil increased root Pb concentration. These results are consistent with a P-enhanced solid-phase As release mechanism, which consequently increases plant uptake of soil As. Phosphate amendment had no effect on soil Pb phytoavailability.
John M. Smagula, Walter Litten, and Scott Dunham
In three commercial fields with a history of low leaf P concentrations, triple super phosphate (TSP) (1 P: 0 N), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) (2.1 P: 1 N), and diammonium phosphate (DAP) (1.11 P: 1 N) with P at 67.2 kg·ha-1 were compared to a control in a randomized complete-block design with 12 blocks. In 1995, all fertilizer treatments were comparable in raising soil P concentrations, but MAP and DAP resulted in higher P leaf concentrations compared to the control. DAP was more effective than MAP in raising N leaf concentrations. Leaf concentrations of Mg, B, and Cu were lowered by MAP and DAP but not TSP. Stem density, stem length, flower buds per stem, flower bud density, and yield were raised by DAP. The same treatments were applied in May 1997 and in May 1999 to the same plots in the same fields. In 1997, by the time of tip dieback in the prune year of that cycle, foliar concentration of P and N averaged higher than in the previous cycle, but still were not up to the standard for N. Fruit yield for the second cycle averaged substantially higher for the controls and for all three treatments, most dramatically for the DAP. In 1999, with only two fields available, response to treatments depended on soil N availability. At the field where leaf N was lower in control plots, MAP and DAP were more effective than TSP in raising leaf P.