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James E. Altland, James S. Owen Jr and William C. Fonteno

Moisture characteristic curves (MCCs) the water content ( θ ) in a substrate to the matric potential ( Ψ m ) ( Raviv and Lieth, 2008 ) at a given tension or height ( h ). There are many methods for deriving MCCs, many of which are described by

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Adam F. Newby, James E. Altland, Daniel K. Struve, Claudio C. Pasian, Peter P. Ling, Pablo S. Jourdan, J. Raymond Kessler and Mark Carpenter

plotted in Fig. 2 . The confidence bounds rarely overlap, suggesting that the substrate MCCs are significantly different from one another. Fig. 1. Moisture characteristic curves of Sunshine LB2 and Fafard 3B generated by the modified long column method

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Erin J. Yafuso, Paul R. Fisher, Ana C. Bohórquez and James E. Altland

phase. Literature Cited Altland, J.E. Owen, J.S. Jr Fonteno, W.C. 2010 Developing moisture characteristic curves, and their descriptive functions at low tensions for soilless substrates J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 35 563 567 Argo, W.R. Biernbaum, J

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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios and Efthimia Nydrioti

( FLL-Forschungsgesellschaft Landschaftsentwicklung Landschatsbau. e.v., 2008 ). Bousselot et al. (2011) evaluated Bouteloua gracilis and Buchloe dactyloides growth in containers with decreasing moisture content. MacIvor and Lundholm (2011

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Magdalena Zazirska Gabriel, James E. Altland and James S. Owen Jr

/min, 150 taps/min) (W.S. Tyler, Mentor, OH). Moisture characteristic curves. Columns (112 cm tall × 7.6 cm i.d.) were cut from schedule 40 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) rigid pipe. Columns were extended for packing by adding 30-cm long sections of schedule 40

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James E. Altland and Charles R. Krause

within a sieve size using Fisher’s protected least significance difference test, where α = 0.05. Moisture characteristic curves were determined with methods similar to those described by Gabriel et al. (2009) . Briefly, columns (152.4 cm tall × 7.6 cm i

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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Thomais-Evelina Kapsali, Maria-Pinelopi Kaltsidi, Liebao Han and Shuxia Yin

chemical characteristics determination Measurements included particle size distribution, pH, EC, moisture potential curves from 0 to 1000 mm suction of substrate mixtures, determination of the hydraulic conductivity of the final substrate mixes, and

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M. Gabriela Buamscha, James E. Altland, Dan M. Sullivan, Donald A. Horneck and James Cassidy

.11 mm) plus a bottom pan ( Bilderback et al., 1982 ). Sieves and pan were shaken for 5 min with a RX-29 Ro-Tap sieve shaker (278 oscillations min −1 , 150 taps min −1 ; W.S. Tyler, Mentor, OH). Substrate moisture characteristic curves expressed as

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Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Ioannis Amountzias, Iro Kokkinou and Nikolaos Ntoulas

; COMPO HELLAS S.A., Athens, Greece; 2.1 NO 3 – -N, 7.9 NH 4 + -N, 6 N′-(2-methylpropyliden)-bis-urea, 3.1 phosphorus, 12.5 potassium, 1.2 magnesium, 3.6 sulfur] at a rate of 6 g·m −2 . Substrate properties and moisture characteristic curves. Substrate

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Nastaran Basiri Jahromi, Amy Fulcher, Forbes Walker, James Altland, Wesley Wright and Neal Eash

application. The on-demand substrate-based irrigation treatment was based on soilless substrate moisture characteristic curves developed using the evaporative method and the Hyprop system (UMS, Munich, Germany) ( Basiri Jahromi et al., 2017 ). The lower set