Proximate biochemical changes in tamarind fruit from fruit-set through maturity and ripening are reported. Of the chemical constituents examined, total acidity, sugars, and alcohol-insoluble materials increased slowly up to 29 weeks (stages 1 and 2) and then increased rapidly during ripening (stage 3). Moisture content of the fruit increased slowly in the beginning and then decreased rapidly during ripening. Total ash and pectin gradually increased in the peel but decreased in the pulp during ripening. Total phenolics increased in the peel and decreased in the pulp. Ascorbic acid content was inconsistent. However, it was evident that changes in chemical constituents taking place during stages 1 and 2 were distinct from those of stage 3. The spectacular changes in acidity, sugars, and alcohol-insoluble materials during ripening were closely related to the changes in the moisture content of the fruit.
Substrate moisture is an important component of crop water status because it controls the partitioning of water and energy fluxes. In container-grown production systems, the volume of water that can be held in the rhizosphere is restricted, and
, nutrients, and soil moisture), life cycle, and dispersal mechanisms of individual species ( Chauhan et al., 2012 ). Tillage can induce dormancy of annual weed seeds by burying them and/or stimulate germination by bringing them to the soil surface. Tillage
Abbreviations: CA, leaf chamber CO 2 concentration; CI, leaf internal CO 2 concentration; E, transpiration; g L , leaf conductance; MSC, moisture stress conditioning; Pn, net photosynthesis; r m , mesophyll resistance to CO 2 ; SI, stomatal
Soil moisture status can be measured using neutron probes, time domain reflectometry, tensiometers, gravimetric methods, and electrical resistance blocks. Most methods have limitations; they may be time-consuming (gravimetric), expensive (neutron probe, time domain), or fixed in place (tensiometer, gypsum block, and neutron probe) (Schmugge, 1980; Weems, 1991). Water management in droughty, urban areas of the country would benefit from identification of a portable, fast, and relatively inexpensive soil moisture measuring device suitable for use in urban lawns and gardens. In this study, we have identified an instrument that may be suitable for this purpose.
plotted in Fig. 2 . The confidence bounds rarely overlap, suggesting that the substrate MCCs are significantly different from one another. Fig. 1. Moisture characteristic curves of Sunshine LB2 and Fafard 3B generated by the modified long column method
management issues include site preparation, soil health, soil moisture, and soil fertility. Our focus is on methods suitable for organic certification. Site preparation If the soil is not already in production, key objectives for site preparation include
); despite this, in each measurement, the substrate temperature of NW containers was always lower than that recorded in RW containers ( Table 3 ). This can be explained by the higher moisture content of NW containers; the high specific heat of water limited
Currently several nondestructive, indirect methods for measurement of moisture ( θ ) in porous media have been developed. These methods include neutron thermalization ( Greacen, 1981 ), time domain reflectometry [TDR ( Topp et al., 1980
early season (first 20 d) has a direct and significant impact on storage root initiation and thus final yield. Sweetpotato is grown as a rain-fed crop in Mississippi and subjected to fluctuating soil moisture conditions in the field. Sweetpotato is also