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Rafel Socias i Company, Àngel Fernández i Martí, Ossama Kodad, and José M. Alonso

identification by molecular markers and gene sequencing as well as to the presence of modifier genes affecting the expression of self-compatibility in almond. Fruit Set The first studies of almond pollination were based on fruit set, concluding that the

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John R. Stommel

) , inheritance of reduced seed count in our genotypes was in agreement with a single recessive gene model. Deviation from this model in the F 2 generation for the cross of G15C104 × G15C105 may be due to modifier genes that influence seed count. Seed count in

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Richard E. Durham and Schuyler S. Korban

DNA was extracted from leaves of various Malus genotypes and used to screen synthetic decamer oligonucleotide primers. Samples from the following two groups were bulked: 1) seven scab-susceptible apple cultivars, and 2) 15 scab-resistant apple genotypes derived by introgressive hybridization from the previous group of cultivars. A third sample consisted of DNA extracted from Malus floribunda Sieb. clone 821, the original source of apple scab resistance for all genotypes in the second group. A total of 59 primers from kits A, L, and R (Operon Technologies) were screened. Amplified fragments were obtained for 93% of the primers tested, while random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments were detected among samples for 76% of the primers. One primer, A15, amplified a unique band in both M. floribunda clone 821 and the bulked scab-resistant sample. This RAPD marker, designated OA15900, identifies an amplified, introgressed fragment that likely corresponds to a region of the genome that may serve as a modifier for the scab resistance gene block V, derived from M. floribunda clone 821.

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Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

. These may have been contaminants ( Kamemoto et al., 1988 ) or suggest the involvement of other minor modifier genes. In the duplicate recessive model, either the R or O gene, or both R and O genes in the homozygous recessive forms, will result in white

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Seung Hee Eom and Tae Kyung Hyun

sequences ( Boycheva et al., 2014 ; Sun et al., 2015 ). By contrast, HDAC removes the acetyl functional groups from the lysine residues of histone tails and results in gene repression ( Boycheva et al., 2014 ). This indicates that HATs and HDACs play a role

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John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach

incompletely dominant gene ( A ) called Anthocyanin and a second modifying gene ( MoA ) called Modifier of A ( Deshpande, 1933 ; Peterson, 1959 ). However, the A locus does not encode an enzyme in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. It encodes a Myb

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Gordon J. Lightbourn, John R. Stommel, and Robert J. Griesbach

resulting phenotypic plasticity are key contributors to the evolution of cellular diversity in plants. Anthocyanin pigmentation in C. annuum is influenced by an incompletely dominant gene, Anthocyanin ( A ) ( Peterson, 1959 ). A second gene, modifier

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Jason Prothro, Hussein Abdel-Haleem, Eleni Bachlava, Victoria White, Steven Knapp, and Cecilia McGregor

( gynoecious ) genes in melon and the F ( female ) and M ( monoecious ) genes in cucumber ( Grumet and Taft, 2012 ; Perl-Treves, 1999 ). In addition to these genes, modifier genes affecting sex expression have been described in these species and it has

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Karen R. Harris, Kai-Shu Ling, W. Patrick Wechter, and Amnon Levi

virus replication were detected on most resistant plants, it is possible that a modifier gene controlling ZYMV-FL replication may exist in ‘Charleston Gray’. Thus, the CAPS and ZYRP markers are linked to a gene that conditions resistance to the ZYMV

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Jing Ma, Zheng Li, Bin Wang, Shunzhao Sui, and Mingyang Li

structure composed of a variety of crosslinked polysaccharides ( Gonzalez-Carranza et al., 2002 ; Petersen et al., 1995 ; Zinnia et al., 2007 ). Various types of cell wall modifier proteins such as expansin protein and other enzymes are involved in the