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Aditi D. Satpute, Chunxian Chen, Fredrick G. Gmitter Jr., Peng Ling, Qibin Yu, Melinda R. Grosser, Jude W. Grosser, and Christine D. Chase

organelle (mitochondria and chloroplast) genotypes. In citrus, plants regenerated from protoplast fusion events almost always possess the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the embryogenic parent ( Cabasson et al., 2001 ; Moriguchi et al., 1996 ; Saito et al

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Jia Shen, Rob Dirks, and Michael J. Havey

possesses several characteristics useful for organellar genetics, including differential transmission of the organellar DNAs; a large mitochondrial DNA with repetitive sequences that undergo recombination to produce structurally rearranged molecules; and the

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Amnon Levi, Judy A. Thies, Alvin M. Simmons, Howard Harrison, Richard Hassell, and Anthony Keinath

USVL-220 is a novel watermelon [ Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] breeding line containing the nuclear genome of watermelon cultivars ( Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus ) and cytoplasmic background (chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes

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Lyle T. Wallace and Michael J. Havey

L.) Gigascience 8 giz072 Lilly, J.W. Havey, M.J. 2001 Short repetitive motifs contributed significantly to the huge mitochondrial genome of cucumber Genetics 159 317 328 Lilly, J.W. Bartoszewski, G. Malepszy, S. Havey, M

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Michael J. Havey and Sunggil Kim

male-sterile inbred lines in 1952 ( Goldman et al., 2000 ). Molecular analyses of the organellar genomes of N and S cytoplasms of onion have revealed many polymorphisms in both the chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNAs ( de Courcel et al., 1989

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Edward J. Boza, Juan Carlos Motamayor, Freddy M. Amores, Sergio Cedeño-Amador, Cecile L. Tondo, Donald S. Livingstone III, Raymond J. Schnell, and Osman A. Gutiérrez

MEGA4: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0 Mol. Biol. Evol. 24 1596 1599 Wolfe, K.H. Li, W.H. Sharp, P.M. 1987 Rates of nucleotide substitution vary greatly among plant mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear DNAs Proc

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Allen V. Barker

mitochondrial respiration, thereby distinguishing the process from photorespiration. The importance of mitochondrial respiration in providing energy for plant growth and for maintenance activities such as nutrient acquisition and other functional process in

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Michael J. Havey and Christopher von Kohn

, 1993 ), and therefore, many molecular markers in the chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs confidently distinguish N and S cytoplasms ( Havey, 1993 , 1995 ; Kim et al., 2009 ; Sato, 1998 ; von Kohn et al., 2013 ). Many molecular markers have also been

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Xiangli Ma, Min Tang, Yufen Bi, and Junbo Yang

conservation 1 30 Genetics and conservation of rare plants. Oxford University Press New York, NY Birky, C.W. 1988 Evolution and variation in plant chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes 23 54 Gottlieb, L.D. Jain, S.K. Plant evolutionary biology

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Myounghai Kwak, Jeong-Ki Hong, Eun Sil Lee, Byoung Yoon Lee, Min Hwan Suh, and Bert Cregg

cultivated and wild germplasm also provides useful insight for breeding programs ( Cornille et al., 2012 ; Dempewolf et al., 2017 ; Migicovsky and Myles, 2017 ; Moran and Bell, 1987 ). For example, a population genetics study of cultivated and wild apricot