1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed. The helpful suggestions and guidance in microscopy technique of Valerie Lynch-Holm and Christine Davitt are gratefully acknowledged, as is the partial financial support of the Washington Tree Fruit
mini-grant for the Center for Electron Microscopy. Use of trade names in this publication does not imply endorsement by the NCARS of products named nor criticism of similar ones not mentioned. The technical assistance of Valerie Knowlton and Eleanor
’ population, were examined using a scanning electron microscope. Microscopy. SEM was conducted on 24 samples of red raspberry collected from three plants each of ‘Caroline’ and ‘Joan J’, and three progeny each of prickled and prickle-free. Two samples were
Maine, Ontario, and Wisconsin were shipped overnight to Minnesota, where 10 fruit were processed immediately for light microscopy, and the remaining fruit were stored at 0 ± 1 °C. In Minnesota, at least 10 fruit per harvest were processed immediately for
to analyze in year 2.
Stereo fluorescence microscopy.
Before use, excised plant tissue was stored at 4 °C with limited ambient light exposure. However, within 72 h of collection, pepper tissue underwent stereo
This report, describes a rapid and convenient method to obtain leaf disc samples for electron microscopy. It was developed in connection with bio-chemical-ultrastructural studies of herbicidal effects on protein synthesis. It was important to speed up the sampling time and to obtain uniformly sized samples.
microscopy. To examine the gross external and internal morphological features of berries and seeds, berries were excised from healthy and afflicted clusters. Berries were then sectioned longitudinally through the center to examine the internal morphology of
Anatomical observations of anthocyanin rich cells in `Fuji' apple skins were carried out by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Apple skins with fully developed red color had more layers of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells than those of green skins. The density of anthocyanin was high in cells of the outer layer of the fruit skins and gradually decreased inward to the flesh. Anthocyanins were frequently found in clusters or in agglomerations that were round in the epidermal cells of the red skins. They accumulated in the inner side of developed vacuoles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the shapes of anthocyanins were cluster style, indeterminable forms, or complete spheres. Anthocyanin seemed to be synthesized around the tonoplast and condensed on the inward side of the vacuole. There was no distinct envelope membrane on the anthocyanin granule in the vacuoles of apple skin cells.
Two clones of American elm (Ulmus americana L.), which could not be distinguished by conventional identification techniques were differentiated on the basis of combined microtopographical characteristics using scanning electron microscopy. Intraclonal variation due to environmental influences was negligible.
Calcofluor and berberine were used to determine the potential of epifluorescence microscopy to observe the interaction between grape leaves and P. viticola. Leaf disks (10 mm in diameter) were inoculated and incubated for 2, 4, and 7 days. Disks were stained with berberine at 0.1% for 1 h, rinsed, placed in 0.1 M Tris (pH 5.8) for 15 min, stained in calcofluor at 0.1% for 25 min, and rinsed. Disks were mounted abaxial side up in 30% glycerin and viewed with an epifluorescence microscope. Various leaf features (e.g., trichomes, stomates) were distinguishable from the fungal structures (e.g., hyphae, sporangiophores). Leaf surface colors were red, orange, brown, green, and yellow, and fungal structures were light to dark blue. Epifluorescence microscopy was a useful means of differentiating leaf and fungal structures.