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Moritz Knoche and Stefanie Peschel

strain of the CM is closely and positively related to frequency and severity of microscopic cracks in the CM ( Knoche and Peschel, 2006 ). Cracks impair the barrier function of the CM and serve as entry ports for fruit rot pathogens, including Botrytis

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M. A. L. Smith, J. Reid, A. Hansen, Z. Li, and D. L. Madhavi

Industrial-scale cultivation of plant cells for valuable product recovery (e.g. natural pigments, pharmaceutical compounds) can only be considered commercially-feasible when a fully-automated, predictable bioprocess is achieved. Automation of cell selection, quantification, and sorting procedures, and pinpointing of optimal microenvironmental regimes can be approached via machine vision. Macroscopic staging of Ajuga reptans callus masses (ranging between 2-6 g FW) permitted simultaneous rapid capture of top and side views. Area data used in a linear regression model yielded a reliable, non-destructive estimate of fresh mass. Suspension culture images from the same cell line were microscopically imaged at 4x (with an inverted microscope). Using color machine vision, the HSI (hue-saturation-intensity) coordinates were used to successfully separate pigmented cells and aggregates from non-pigmented cells, aggregates, and background debris. Time-course sampling of a routine suspension culture consistently allowed pigmented cells to be detected, and intensity could be correlated with the degree of pigmentation as verified using spectrophotometer analysis of parallel samples.

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Vahid Rahimi Eichi, Stephen D. Tyerman, and Michelle G. Wirthensohn

SAS/STAT (Version 9.1; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). In addition, some images were prepared from the internal structures of fully expanded leaves collected from the same cultivars (Nonpareil, Carmel, and Masbovera). To this aim, we used a cryo-SEM method

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Raymond A. Cloyd

never been a comprehensive reference that adequately discusses in detail biology and field identification characters, as well as providing color images of the most common armored scale insects in the United States. Well, the book, Armored Scale Insect

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Robert E. Marra

Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Ecology of Bark-inhabiting and Tree-pathogenic Fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae. M. Gryzenhout, B.D. Wingfield, and M.J. Wingfield. 2009. APS Press, St. Paul, MN 55121. 136 pages, 14 color images, 38 black and white images

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Kendra M. Blaker and James W. Olmstead

blue stages of development. z Fig. 1. Microscopic images of 12-μm sections from mature green fruit of standard texture southern highbush blueberry genotypes (100× magnification): ( A ) ‘Springhigh’, ( B ) ‘Windsor’, ( C ) ‘Star’, ( D ) FL06-245, ( E

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Johannes Daniel Scharwies, Eckhard Grimm, and Moritz Knoche

. Microscopic fractures (“microcracks”) in the fruit surface are considered to be the first visible symptom in russeting ( Faust and Shear, 1972a , 1972b ). Factors causing microcracking often stimulate russeting. Such factors include high humidity, prolonged

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Tao Yuan, Qiuying Wei, and Gary Bauchan

). The exposed CO and hole that the AP-S will grow through ( D ). Bar = 0.5 mm. The seedcoat was observed using LT-SEM according to the methods described by Bolton et al. (2014) and Roh et al. (2012) . Microscopic images were obtained from two seeds

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Shuresh Ghimire, Arnold M. Saxton, Annette L. Wszelaki, Jenny C. Moore, and Carol A. Miles

observed through physical strength testing, microscopic imaging, or sizable macroscopic alteration of morphology) during the growing season ( Anzalone et al., 2010 ; Cowan et al., 2014 ; Jenni et al., 2007 ; Kasirajan and Ngouajio, 2012 ; Li et al

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Yin Xu, Yizhou Ma, Nicholas P. Howard, Changbin Chen, Cindy B.S. Tong, Gail Celio, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Renae E. Moran

this study. Materials and Methods Fruit and storage. ‘Honeycrisp’ fruit exhibiting soft scald used for microscopic analyses of the disorder, as well as corresponding unaffected fruit, were grown and harvested in 2016 at the University of Maine Highmoor