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initial fertility. However, research has shown that pine bark media contains sufficient micronutrients to produce woody plants. Niemiera (1992) extracted slightly lower levels of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) from pine bark alone

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micronutrients (B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Zn) to support vigorous crop growth. Plants grown in peatmoss without added micronutrients have been shown to be deficient in Cu ( Adams et al., 1986 ), B and Fe ( Smilde, 1975 ), Zn ( Penningsfeld, 1972 ), and Mo ( Cox, 1988

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examined the impact of Si amendments in soilless substrates where Si availability is limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Si on heavy metal micronutrient uptake and plant growth for greenhouse-cultivated cannabis at

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micronutrients iron, zinc, and vitamin A are essential to the human diet, large segments of the global population experience health consequences from inadequate intake ( Cichy et al., 2005 ; Long et al., 2004 ; Mason et al., 2001 ). Strategies to overcome these

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metabolites (Ibrahim and Hawa, 2013). However, much focus has been on N, P, and K as the main nutrients affecting growth and development with little attention to trace elements. Micronutrients such as manganese, zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, and boron are

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Foliar micronutrient toxicity symptoms of Petunia hybrida `Ultra Crimson Star' were induced by elevated levels (from 0.25 to 6 mM) of boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn) in the nutrient solution. Foliar toxicity symptoms of most micronutrients (except Fe) were characterized by leaf yellowing, interveinal chlorosis, and marginal necrosis. Mo toxicity was most severe. Leaf abnormality was not induced by Fe in the concentration range tested. Visible foliar toxicity symptoms developed when nutrient solution contained 5.4, 32, 28, 24, and 16 mg· liter-1, respectively, of B, Cu, Mn, Mo and Zn. Biomass yield was reduced when the fertilizer solution contained (in mg· liter-1): 22 B, 64 Cu, 335 Fe, 28 Mn, 24 Mo, and 33 Zn.

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., 1982 ; National Resource Council, 2006 ). Vegetable amaranth is commonly cited as having unrealized potential to deliver mineral and vitamin micronutrients as well as protein to at-risk populations in regions with high rates of nutritional deficiencies

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reduce P leaching from containers when mixed into a pine bark substrate ( Ogutu and Williams, 2009 ; Owen et al., 2007 ; Ruter, 2004 ). Dolomite [CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ] and micronutrient amendments are routinely mixed into container substrates before potting

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.S. Department of Agriculture, 2008 ), where the predominantly calcareous and/or high pH soils could limit the availability of micronutrients, because they tend to precipitate out of soil solution in a carbonate-dominated environment ( Epstein and Bloom, 2005

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, micronutrients are involved in the metabolism by way of precursors from both the shikimate and the acetate-malonate pathways ( Crozier et al., 2000 ; Urquiaga, and Leighton, 2000 ). In this study, the indirect effect of micronutrient foliar application on

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