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M. Gabriela Buamscha, James E. Altland, Daniel M. Sullivan, and Donald A. Horneck

initial fertility. However, research has shown that pine bark media contains sufficient micronutrients to produce woody plants. Niemiera (1992) extracted slightly lower levels of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) from pine bark alone

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James E. Altland, Charles Krause, James C. Locke, and Wendy L. Zellner

micronutrients (B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Zn) to support vigorous crop growth. Plants grown in peatmoss without added micronutrients have been shown to be deficient in Cu ( Adams et al., 1986 ), B and Fe ( Smilde, 1975 ), Zn ( Penningsfeld, 1972 ), and Mo ( Cox, 1988

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M. Courtney, M. Mcharo, D. La Bonte, and W. Gruneberg

micronutrients iron, zinc, and vitamin A are essential to the human diet, large segments of the global population experience health consequences from inadequate intake ( Cichy et al., 2005 ; Long et al., 2004 ; Mason et al., 2001 ). Strategies to overcome these

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Maedza K. Vuwani, Mpumelelo Nkomo, Wonder Ngezimana, Nokwanda P. Makunga, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

metabolites (Ibrahim and Hawa, 2013). However, much focus has been on N, P, and K as the main nutrients affecting growth and development with little attention to trace elements. Micronutrients such as manganese, zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, and boron are

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Chun-Ho Pak and Chiwon W. Lee

Foliar micronutrient toxicity symptoms of Petunia hybrida `Ultra Crimson Star' were induced by elevated levels (from 0.25 to 6 mM) of boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn) in the nutrient solution. Foliar toxicity symptoms of most micronutrients (except Fe) were characterized by leaf yellowing, interveinal chlorosis, and marginal necrosis. Mo toxicity was most severe. Leaf abnormality was not induced by Fe in the concentration range tested. Visible foliar toxicity symptoms developed when nutrient solution contained 5.4, 32, 28, 24, and 16 mg· liter-1, respectively, of B, Cu, Mn, Mo and Zn. Biomass yield was reduced when the fertilizer solution contained (in mg· liter-1): 22 B, 64 Cu, 335 Fe, 28 Mn, 24 Mo, and 33 Zn.

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David R. Byrnes, Fekadu F. Dinssa, Stephen C. Weller, and James E. Simon

., 1982 ; National Resource Council, 2006 ). Vegetable amaranth is commonly cited as having unrealized potential to deliver mineral and vitamin micronutrients as well as protein to at-risk populations in regions with high rates of nutritional deficiencies

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Jacob H. Shreckhise, James S. Owen Jr., Matthew J. Eick, Alexander X. Niemiera, James E. Altland, and Brian E. Jackson

reduce P leaching from containers when mixed into a pine bark substrate ( Ogutu and Williams, 2009 ; Owen et al., 2007 ; Ruter, 2004 ). Dolomite [CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ] and micronutrient amendments are routinely mixed into container substrates before potting

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Suphasuk Pradubsuk and Joan R. Davenport

.S. Department of Agriculture, 2008 ), where the predominantly calcareous and/or high pH soils could limit the availability of micronutrients, because they tend to precipitate out of soil solution in a carbonate-dominated environment ( Epstein and Bloom, 2005

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Maedza V. Khathutshelo, Nkomo Mpumelelo, Ngezimana Wonder, and Mudau N. Fhatuwani

, micronutrients are involved in the metabolism by way of precursors from both the shikimate and the acetate-malonate pathways ( Crozier et al., 2000 ; Urquiaga, and Leighton, 2000 ). In this study, the indirect effect of micronutrient foliar application on

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Mary Ann Rose and Hao Wang

Micronutrient supplements were applied to container rhododendron (Rhododendron L. × `Girards Scarlet' [Girard Evergreen Hybrid Group]) in three forms: uncoated micronutrient fertilizer; slow-release, NPK-plus-minors fertilizer; and biosolids compost (15% v/v). Control plants received no supplement. While all micronutrient treatments had significantly higher foliar Mn or Cu concentrations than controls 1 year after potting, they did not increase growth (dry weight) or plant quality. At 1, 3, and 12 months after potting, the compost treatment had significantly higher diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable levels of Mn, Fe, and Zn in the medium. Only one micronutrient fertilizer treatment increased extractable micronutrient concentrations (Cu) on all testing dates. Correlations between medium-extractable and foliar micronutrient concentrations were low (r 2 < 0.30). Vigorous growth in the control treatment suggested that adequate levels of micronutrients were supplied by the pine bark-hardwood bark-peat-sand medium. September concentrations [ppm (mg·L-1)] as low as 2.0 Mn, 17.8 Fe, 0.3 Cu, 4.2 Zn, and 0.9 B in DTPA extracts produced acceptable growth in rhododendron through the following June.