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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Charles L. Cantrell, William B. Evans, M. Wayne Ebelhar, and Christine Coker

chemotaxonomical range of sweet basil is very wide. For example, in a study on 270 sweet basil accessions, the major constituents were found to be (–)-linalool (up to 71%), methyl chavicol, or citral and 1,8-cineole, (–)-camphor, thymol, methyl cinnamate, eugenol

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Roberto F. Vieira and James E. Simon

Ocimum species are largely used in Brazil both as a condiment and in traditional medicine against bronchitis, cough, and sorethroat in the form of tea or syrup. As little research has examined the natural products from Brazilian basil, 14 accessions of Ocimum, including O. basilicum (4), O. campechianum (3), O. gratissimum (6), and O. kilimandsharicum (1), collected in Brazil were grown in the Purdue Univ. greenhouse and upon maturity harvested, the volatile oil extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. Thirty-one constituents were identified. Three accessions of O. gratissimum showed high content of eugenol (40% to 66%), while the other accessions contained either high thymol (33%) or p-cymene (28% to 42%). The constituents of the single O. kilimandscharicum included 1,8-cineole (39%), methyl-chavicol (21%), and ß-bisabolene (23%). O. campechianum accessions contained either high 1,8-cineole (62%) or high ß-caryophyllene (79%). O. basilicum could also be separated chemically: a linalool:methyl chavicol type (47:28%); one methyl chavicol type (72%), and a third, methyl cinnamate (61%). One accession was identified containing >90% trans-methyl cinnamate, which crystallized during extraction. Plants rich in targeted compounds, such as the one with 90% trans-methyl cinnamate, can be used as source of germplasm for breeding and potential commercialization

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Kelly M. Bowes and Valtcho D. Zheljazkov

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted at two sites in Nova Scotia during 2001 and 2002 to assess the potential to grow fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) as an essential oil crop in the Maritime region of Canada. Three cultivars—`Shumen', `Berfena', and `Sweet Fennel'—and two seeding dates—24 May and 8 June—were evaluated. Essential oil yields and composition were determined and compared to commercially available fennel essential oil from the U.S. The highest herbage yields were produced by `Shumen' from the earlier seeding date. Essential oil content and yields were lowest in `Sweet Fennel' and highest in `Shumen'. The major component of the essential oil was anethole, 47% to 80.2%. Other major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol, fenchone, α-phellandrene, α-pinene, ortho cymene, β-phellandrene, fenchyl acetate, β-pinene, and apiole. The essential oil composition was unique to each cultivar. The highest methyl chavicol content was in `Shumen', while the highest concentration of phellandrene, fenchyl acetate and apiole were detected in `Sweet Fennel' oil. Fenchone, ortho cymene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-pinene were the highest in `Berfena'. The composition of the oil was similar to the commercially purchased oil and met industry requirements of oil composition. The results suggest there is potential to grow fennel as an essential oil crop in Nova Scotia.

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Kelly M. Bowes and Valtcho D. Zheljazkov

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted during the summers of 2001 and 2002 in two locations in Nova Scotia to identify the effect of cultivar, transplanting date, and drying (air-drying and freeze-drying) on basil (Ocimum basilicum `Mesten' and `Italian Broadleaf', and O. sanctum `Local') productivity and oil quality in Nova Scotia and to identify the potential of growing basil as a cash crop in this region. Results suggested that all of the tested cultivars of basil grown in Nova Scotia had acceptable yields and composition for the international commercial market. Greater yields (ranging from 3.6 to 19.8 t·ha-1) were achieved from `Mesten' and `Italian Broadleaf' by earlier transplanting. `Local' had a lower oil content compared to the other cultivars. Linalool was the main component of `Mesten' oil, linalool and methyl chavicol were the main components of `Italian Broadleaf' oil, while elemene and α-humulene were the main components of `Local' oil. Both air-drying and freeze-drying were found to alter the composition of the essential oil from O. sanctum and O. basilicum.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Barry O'Brocki, and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

. The effect of DT on essential oil content and on the concentration and yield of linalool, methyl chavicol, para-anis-aldehyde, transanethole, gamma-himachalene, transpseudoisoeugenyl-2-methyl, and epoxy-pseudoisoeugenyl-2-methyl was determined using a

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Yifan Jiang, Xinlu Chen, Hong Lin, Fei Wang, and Feng Chen

, methyl salicylate, methyl benzoate, methyl eugenol, and methyl chavicol. Based on the known biochemistry, we can hypothesize that these metabolites are formed by the action of methyltransferases. Clustering analysis suggests that three types of

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Christian A. Wyenandt, James E. Simon, Margaret T. McGrath, and Daniel L. Ward

, secondary plant products that are constituents of the plants' aromatic volatile oils, also known as essential oils. It is the presence and relative ratio of these major and minor volatile constituents such as linalool, methyl chavicol, citral, eugenol

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Orapin Kerdchoechuen, Natta Laohakunjit, Sasathorn Singkornard, and Frank B. Matta

( Lachowicz et al., 1997 ; Marotti et al., 1996 ). Thailand, Madagascar, and Vietnam basils contain high concentrations of methyl chavicol ( Simon et al., 1990 ; Vernin et al., 1984 ). Other chemotypes characterized in other Ocimum species and varieties

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Robert M. Pyne, Adolfina R. Koroch, Christian A. Wyenandt, and James E. Simon

either “large leaf” or “Genovese”type leaf morphology and an essential oil profile that includes the principle phenylpropanoid and terpenoid components linalool, methyl chavicol, eugenol, and 1,8 cineole ( De Masi et al., 2006 ; Vieira and Simon, 2006

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Bahlebi K. Eiasu, Puffy Soundy, and J. Martin Steyn

increased linalool and methyl chavicol and reduced sesquiterpenes. Contrary to the previously mentioned report, short-term stress (withholding irrigation for 8 d) did not change essential oil yield and oil composition of Melaleuca alternifolia ( List et al