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James P. Gilreath, Bielinski M. Santos, and Timothy N. Motis

placing drip irrigation lines and polyethylene mulch ( Peres et al., 2006 ). Soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MBr) was an effective means of controlling sting nematode populations. However, this fumigant has been phased out in compliance with the

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Zahangir Kabir, Steven A. Fennimore, John M. Duniway, Frank N. Martin, Gregory T. Browne, Christopher Q. Winterbottom, Husein A. Ajwa, Becky B. Westerdahl, Rachael E. Goodhue, and Milton J. Haar

Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics. Financial support was provided by the USDA–CSREES Methyl Bromide Transitions Program (00-51102-9553, 2002-51102-01929). Material support was provided by the California Strawberry Commission, Lassen

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Eva García-Méndez, David García-Sinovas, Maximo Becerril, Antońeta De Cal, Paloma Melgarejo, Anselmo Martínez-Treceño, Steven A. Fennimore, Carmen Soria, Juan J. Medina, and Jóse M. López-Aranda

For years, strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa L.) runner plant nurseries have relied on methyl bromide (MB) or mixtures of MB and chloropicrin (Pic) fumigation of soil to produce healthy transplants ( Ajwa et al., 2003 ; Kabir et al., 2005

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S.M. Schneider, B.D. Hanson, J.S. Gerik, A. Shrestha, T.J. Trout, and S. Gao

Soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) has commonly been used before planting open-field perennial crop nurseries to meet grower expectations and government regulations designed to ensure high-quality planting stock for domestic and international

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Steven A. Fennimore, Milton J. Haar, Rachael E. Goodhue, and Christopher Q. Winterbottom

Commission, 1999 ). The diversity of climates in California along with the use of methyl bromide (MB) fumigation permits the production of high-quality runner plants. Strawberry runner plant production begins in virus-free rearing facilities, i

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Sanjeev K. Bangarwa, Jason K. Norsworthy, Ronald L. Rainey, and Edward E. Gbur

quantity and quality beneath the mulch. However, the physical barrier is ineffective against nutsedge species because their sharp-pointed shoot tips can pierce the plastic mulch ( Patterson, 1998 ). For effective weed control, methyl bromide, a preplant

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Robert E. Uhlig, George Bird, Robert J. Richardson, and Bernard H. Zandstra

Fumigants are used to control soil-borne pests to obtain larger yields of high-quality horticultural products ( Messenger and Braun, 2000 ). Methyl bromide has been the most widely used fumigant, with 68,424 t used worldwide in 1996. The United

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Olha Sydorovych, Charles D. Safley, Rob M. Welker, Lisa M. Ferguson, David W. Monks, Katie Jennings, Jim Driver, and Frank J. Louws

Methyl bromide is a highly effective broad-spectrum fumigant used extensively to control a wide variety of soilborne pests in U.S. agriculture. Under the Montreal Protocol of 1991, MeBr was defined as a chemical that contributes to the depletion of

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Sally M. Schneider, Husein A. Ajwa, Thomas J. Trout, and Suduan Gao

Soil fumigation with methyl bromide/chloropicrin (MBr/Pic) is the standard for soil disinfestations and is used to reduce the risk of yield loss resulting from soilborne pathogens in high-value crops such as strawberry and in certified field

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José M. López-Aranda, Luis Miranda, Juan J. Medina, Carmen Soria, Berta de los Santos, Fernando Romero, Rosa M. Pérez-Jiménez, Miguel Talavera, Steve A. Fennimore, and Bielinski M. Santos

Strawberry production in Spain has exclusively relied upon the use of methyl bromide (MBr) alone or in combination with chloropicrin (Pic) as preplant soil fumigation treatments for control of soilborne diseases, nematodes, and weeds ( Calatrava