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Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) is a mutagen that chemically alters DNA through random reaction and modification of oxygen present in nucleotide bases (such as the O6 of guanine and O4 of thymine) as well as in DNA phosphate groups ( Sega, 1984

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production management. Increased C storage through conservation or “no-till” has been shown to maintain or increase soil C levels and reduce fossil fuel use ( Paustian et al., 1997 ; Reicosky et al., 1999 ; Smith et al., 1998 ). Methane emissions have been

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The sensitivity of easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) to either ethylene or methane (products of incomplete burning in gas-fired unit heaters) was tested during rooting [3 weeks at 18 °C (65 °F)], vernalization [6 weeks at 6 °C (43 °F)] and subsequent greenhouse forcing (15 weeks at 18 °C). Starting at planting, easter lilies were exposed for one of seven consecutive 3-week periods (short-term), or for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 weeks starting at planting (long-term) to either ethylene or methane at an average concentration of 2.4 and 2.5 μL·L-1(ppm), respectively. Short- or long-term exposure to ethylene during rooting and vernalization had no effect on the number of buds, leaves, or plant height but increased the number of days to flower. Short-term exposure within 6 weeks after vernalization reduced the number of buds by 1 bud/plant compared to the control (no ethylene exposure). However, extensive bud abortion occurred when plants were exposed to ethylene during the flower development phase. Long-term exposure to ethylene from planting until after the flower initiation period resulted in only two to three buds being initiated, while continued long-term exposure until flowering caused all flower buds to abort. Short-term exposure to methane at any time had no effect on leaf yellowing, bud number, bud abortion, or height and had only a marginal effect on production time. Long-term exposure to methane from planting until the end of vernalization increased both the number of buds, leaves and height without affecting forcing time, leaf yellowing or bud abortion.

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Concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ethylene, and methane did not differ significantly in soil containing blight-affected and healthy ‘Valencia’ orange trees [(Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]. Methane was found in soils during all sampling, with the highest levels occurring during the July and October collections.

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Production of methane via anaerobic digestion of energy crops and organic wastes would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This could replace fossil fuel-derived energy and reduce its environmental impacts, including global warming and acid rain. Although biomass energy is more costly than fossil fuel-derived energy, trends to limit carbon dioxide and other emissions through regulations, carbon taxes, and subsidies of biomass energy would make it cost competitive. Methane derived from anaerobic digestion is competitive in efficiencies and costs with other biomass energy forms including heat, synthesis gases, and ethanol. The objective of this paper is to review the results and conclusions of research on biomass energy conducted under the sponsorship of the gas industry with periodic co-funding from other agencies. The scope of this program was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of production of substitute natural gas (SNG) from marine and terrestrial biomass and organic wastes using anaerobic digestion as a conversion process. This work began in 1968 and continued until about 1990, ending as a result of low energy prices in the U.S. and reduced emphasis on renewable energy. For each of these feedstock categories, growth or collection (in the case of wastes), harvesting, conversion by anaerobic digestion, and systems and economic analysis were addressed. More recently the potential use of anaerobic digestion for stabilization and recovery of nutrients from solid wastes during space missions was studied with funding from NASA. The application of this process for that function as well as treatment of wastewater and waste gases generated during space missions is addressed.

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chemical mutagens have also been used, including azide ( Cary, 1982 ), N -ethylnitrosourea ( Svetleva, 2004 ), and ethyl methane sulfonate ( Motto et al., 1975 ). Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) has been used to generate mutations in seedcoat color ( Moh

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Press Cambridge, UK Johnson, D.E. Hill, T.M. Ward, G.M. Johnson, K.A. Branine, M.E. Carmean, B.R. Lodman, D.W. 1993 Ruminants and other animals 199 299 Khalil M.A.K. Atmospheric methane: Sources, sinks, and role in global change Springer-Verlag New York

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. There is also little information on the flux of other trace gases (nitrous oxide and methane) in these systems. Horticulture production facilities often use large amounts of water in irrigation as well as large amounts of fertilizers; this combination of

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Carbon dioxide, methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are major contributors to the increases in GHG emissions, fueling changes in the earth’s climate. The USEPA(2015) estimates that GHG emissions due to agriculture accounted for 7.6% of

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Effect of media containing processed fiber (methane digested cow manure) as a substitute for peatmoss, micronutrient application, and medium mixing ratios of processed fiber with perlite were investigated in pansy cv. Maxima mix plants (Viola ×wittrockiana). Neither medium components nor micronutrients significantly influenced plant growth and appearance when plants were potted in medium containing either 60% processed fiber and 40% perlite, 100% processed fiber, or 60% peatmoss and 40% perlite and supplemented with either N–P–K or N–P–K with micronutrients. The plant size and biomass production of leaves increased with increasing proportion of perlite in the mixtures containing processed fiber while the number and biomass of flowers were not affected. Water content of leaves or flowers was not influenced by mixes of processed fiber and perlite. The processed fiber, either alone or mixed with other media components, was satisfactory for the production of pansy plants with or without micronutrient application.

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