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Qiang Liu and Yiwei Jiang

carbohydrate and antioxidant metabolism could play a role in whole plant regrowth after submergence stress. Rapid recovery from submergence stress is a desirable trait that allows plants to more quickly resume normal function. Exogenous application of nutrients

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Dominique-André Demers, Serge Yelle, and André Gosselin

Transgenic & Plant Metabolism

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Rachel S. Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

soggy breakdown can also occur simultaneously ( Watkins et al., 2005 ). Soggy breakdown has been attributed to CI ( Plagge and Maney, 1928 ; Smock, 1977 ), but evidence of anaerobic metabolism ( Leisso et al., 2015 ) suggests gas exchange or respiration

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Nobuko Sugimoto, A. Daniel Jones, and Randolph Beaudry

respective esters, valine metabolism produces 2-methylpropanol and 2-methylpropanoate and their respective esters, and isoleucine yields 2-methylbutanol and 2-methylbutanoate and their respective esters ( Pérez et al., 2002 ; Rowan et al., 1996 , 1998

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Fang Yu, Zhiming Ni, Xingfeng Shao, Lina Yu, Hongxing Liu, Feng Xu, and Hongfei Wang

after harvest ( Aubert et al., 2014 ), and the concentration of sucrose is directly related to fruit quality and taste ( Borsani et al., 2009 ). Sucrose metabolism is the primary system controlling sugar concentration and composition. Sucrose can be

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Antal Szőke, Erzsébet Kiss, László Heszky, Ildikó Kerepesi, and Ottó Toldi

In all eukaryotic cells, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (fru 2,6P 2 ) is an important regulator of carbohydrate metabolism ( Okar and Lange, 1999 ). In plants, this molecule coordinates the rate of CO 2 assimilation and carbon partitioning between

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Xi Shan, Heng Zhou, Ting Sang, Sheng Shu, Jin Sun, and Shirong Guo

growth by affecting shoot assimilation rates and creating an imbalance in carbon and N metabolism ( Wahid et al., 2007 ). High temperature modifies the activities of carbon metabolism enzymes and sucrose synthesis by downregulating specific genes in

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Yosef Burger and Arthur A. Schaffer

appears to be controlled by the metabolism of carbohydrates in the fruit sink itself ( Hubbard et al., 1989 ; Lester et al., 2001 , Schaffer et al., 1996 , 2000 ). Sucrose and the galactosyl–sucrose oligosaccharides, raffinose and stachyose, are

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Huai-Fu Fan, Chang-Xia Du, and Shi-Rong Guo

and Savouré, 2009 ). In addition, the intermediates of Pro metabolism induce gene expression and reduce oxidation injuries from osmotic stress ( Hong et al., 2000 ). Although Pro-inducible genes have been identified ( Satoh et al., 2002 ), the

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Zhengke Zhang, Zhaoyin Gao, Min Li, Meijiao Hu, Hui Gao, Dongping Yang, and Bo Yang

al., 2006 ) and abnormality of cell wall metabolism involving in changes in pectin solubilization and degrading enzyme activities ( Ketsa et al., 1999 ). In addition, chilling temperature induces oxidative stress when reactive oxygen species are in