Five cuttings from different node positions on stock plants were taken from each of 3 Clematis cultivars (Jackmani, Contesse de Bouchard, and Gypsy Queen) and Clematis purpurea plena elegans. Actively growing plants with 5 nodes were acquired. Node number increased from 1 at the base of the plant to 5 at the tip of the plant. Cuttings were treated with or without 0.1% IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) and placed in 1 of 5 different media: 100% washed sand (WS), 50% washed sand and 50% sphagnum peat (WP), 50% sphagnum peat and 50% perlite (SP), 100%) perlite (PT), or 50% sphagnum peat plus 25% perlite plus 25% vermiculite (PV). Rooting date, primary and secondary root number, and root dry weight were collected after 8 weeks. `Gypsy Queen' showed the earliest rooting with the greatest root development. Jackmani showed the worst rooting. Media WS and PT showed the best rooting whereas WP and SP showed the worst. Cuttings taken from the first 3 nodes rooted the best. As node position increased root number and dry weight decreased and time to root increased. Application of IBA had no significant effect on time to root or degree of rooting.
John E. Erwin and Debra Schwarze
Chris A. Martin and Dewayne L. Ingram
Thermal properties of pine bark: sand container media as a function of volumetric water content and effectiveness of irrigation as a tool for modulating high temperatures in container media were studied. Volumetric water and sand content interacted to affect container medium thermal diffusivity. Adding sand to a pine bark container medium decreased thermal diffusivity if volumetric water content was less than 10 percent and increased thermal diffusivity if volumetric water content was between 10 and 70 percent. Thermal diffusivity was greatest for a 3 pine bark : 2 sand container medium if volumetric water content was between 30 and 70 percent. Irrigation was used to decrease temperatures in 10-liter container media. Irrigation water at 26°C was more effective if 1) volumes equaled or exceeded 3000 ml, 2) applications were made during mid-day, and 3) sand was present in the container medium compared to pine bark alone. However, due to the volume of water required to lower container media temperatures, nursery operators should first consider reducing incoming irradiance via overhead shade or container spacing.
Sandra B. Wilson, Nihal C. Rajapakse, and Roy E. Young
Hosta (Hosta tokudama Makeawa `Newberry Gold') plantlets were micropropagated photoautotrophically (without sucrose in medium) or photomixotrophically (with 2% sucrose in medium) for 3 weeks at 23 °C under 80 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) prior to long-term storage. Plantlets were stored for 4, 8, or 12 weeks at 5, 10, or 22 °C in darkness or under white (400-800 nm), blue (400-500 nm), or red (600-700 nm) light at or near light compensation points. Illumination during storage was necessary to maintain dry weight and regrowth potentials of plantlets in vitro, but light quality had no effect on these parameters. All photoautotrophic plantlets stored in darkness were of poor quality at the time of removal from storage and died when transferred to the greenhouse. Dark-stored photomixotrophic plantlets survived storage for 12 weeks at 5 °C, but declined in appearance (visual quality) as the storage duration increased. Decline in visual quality was greater when plantlets were stored at 10 and 22 °C. Leaf dry weight of illuminated plantlets increased and percentage of leaf yellowing decreased as storage temperature increased. Recovery of illuminated plantlets from photomixotrophic storage was best when plantlets were stored at 22 °C. These plantlets were characterized by increased visual quality (color and form) and increased dry weight compared with those in other treatments. After 60 days in the greenhouse, the dry weight of these plantlets was similar for 4-, 8-, and 12-week storage durations, indicating flexibility in storage time if specific light and temperature provisions are met.
J. Kevin Parris, Darren H. Touchell, Thomas G. Ranney, and Jeffrey Adelberg
‘Elizabeth’ and ‘Yellow Bird’ ( Biedermann, 1987 ). These studies indicated basal salt composition and plant growth regulators were important factors influencing in vitro propagation of magnolia. Culture media comprised of Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal
Patrick H. Kingston, Carolyn F. Scagel, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine Strik
extract ( Robbins and Wiegand, 1990 ). Nutrient composition of media samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotometry after extraction using Mehlich 1 for P, K, Ca, Mg, and Na, DPTA for Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn, and hot water for B
Laise S. Moreira and Matthew D. Clark
relies primarily on the media composition used during two phases. The first phase (heterotrophic, in which the pre-embryo depends on the endosperm if present) consists of incubating the fertilized ovules on the media to aid embryo formation and avoid
Alice Noemí Aranda-Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Edson Namita Higashi, and Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli
micropropagated plants grown in different culture media. The aim of the present study was to improve the growth and mineral composition of three epiphyte bromeliad species, Vrisea hieroglyhica , V. unilateralis , and V. friburguensis ( Fig. 1 ), by adjusting
Myung Min Oh, Young Yeol Cho, Kee Sung Kim, and Jung Eek Son
·s −1 during the experiment, respectively. Measurement of water contents in different media compositions. Two mixtures of peatmoss and perlite [7:3 and 5:5 (v/v)] were used under four irrigation systems, NFW (5×), NFW (2×), NSW, and EBB. Three
Carlo Mininni, Pietro Santamaria, Hamada M. Abdelrahman, Claudio Cocozza, Teodoro Miano, Francesco Montesano, and Angelo Parente
hand, the concentration of K decreased following a linear trend from C0 to C100 ( Table 3 ). Table 3. Chemical composition of the water-soluble extract (1:5, v/v) of five growing media with increasing posidonia-based compost percentage. Seed germination
John J. Sloan, Raul I. Cabrera, Peter A.Y. Ampim, Steve A. George, and Wayne A. Mackay
for a selected group of nutrients and Table 5 shows the results for the four elements (N, P, Ca, and Zn) that were most significantly affected by growing media composition. There is no data for the 65-PB/35-CH growing mediums because vinca plants