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vegetable commodity, depending on the labor intensity of production, but in general, labor comprises approximately half of variable production costs. To reduce labor costs, growers can adopt labor aids and mechanization on the farm ( Calvin and Martin, 2010

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The vegetable industry is important to our nation as a provider of nutritious and safe food directly consumed by our citizens. It is also critical to a rich and vigorous national agriculture. During the 20th century, engineering innovations coupled with advances in genetics, crop science, and plant protection have allowed the vegetable industry in the U.S. to plant and harvest significantly more land with higher yields while using less labor. Currently, fresh and processed vegetables generate 16% of all U.S. crop income, but from only 2% of the harvested cropland. Yet, many of the challenges in production that existed a century ago still exist for many crops. Perhaps the most significant challenge confronting the industry is labor, often accounting for 50% of all production costs. A case study of the mechanized production system developed for processed tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) confirms that systematic methodology in which the machines, cultural practices, and cultivars are designed together must be adopted to improve the efficiency of current mechanized systems as well as provide profitable alternatives for crops currently hand-harvested. Only with this approach will horticultural crop production remain competitive and economically viable in the U.S.

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Recent worldwide occurrences such as the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine war, in addition to environmental challenges to producing specialty crops, have led growers to evaluate mechanization alternatives. That is true for wine grapes

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survey of nursery and greenhouse automation and mechanization was conducted in the northern Gulf of Mexico region as a part of a research program undertaken by the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station and the U.S. Department of Labor

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on mechanization in the vineyard to ensure market competition. Research has been conducted by the Enology and Viticulture Program, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, since 1966 on postharvest handling, adapting harvesters to different trellises

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Abstract

The strong position of the United States in today's world is largely due to a prospering mechanized agricultural industry-an industry that produces the nation's food and fiber in abundance with around 6 per cent of the nation's working force on the production line. The millions released from producing the necessities of life are freed to other industries, services and professions, thereby contributing to America's remarkable industrial expansion and the prevailing high standard of living.

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viable, new technology is needed to improve harvesting efficiency and make it economically feasible for blueberry producers to adopt. To elicit producer attitudes toward mechanized harvest for fresh-market blueberry, a survey was conducted over 2 years

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maintain and harvest their labor-intensive chile crops. Following the termination of the Bracero Program in 1964, chile producers and processors intensified efforts to mechanize field operations. The first documented trial of mechanical chile harvest was

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tasks were performed by workers with significant number of nurseries using mechanized or automated systems in media preparation, filling containers with substrates, moving containers from potting to transport, transporting containers to field, plant

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combination of technological advances and economic/social changes now favor the adoption of mechanized raisin-making practices ( Calvin and Martin 2010b ), which, in California’s climate, require cultivars that ripen earlier than ‘Thompson Seedless’. The

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