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Isaac Zipori, Arnon Dag, Yizhar Tugendhaft, and Reuven Birger

test different mechanical-harvesting approaches for processing at a reasonable cost with low labor demand. Mechanical harvesting of table olives has been studied since 1975 ( Ferguson et al., 2012 ; Vega Macias et al., 2005 ; Zion et al., 2011

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Timothy M. Spann and Michelle D. Danyluk

, Brazilian citrus growers were able to deliver frozen concentrated orange juice to the port of Tampa, FL, for only $0.0757 more per pound solids than Florida growers. For these reasons, Florida has been working to develop mechanical harvesting technology

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Adam Karl, Whitney Knickerbocker, and Gregory Peck

exceptions, horticultural crops, such as fruits and vegetables, are still largely dependent on migrant harvest labor ( USDA, 2020a ). The costs and challenges associated with seasonal migrant labor have driven the adoption of mechanical harvesters for

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Luis Rallo

planted with 70–100 trees/ha. After World War II, rural migration increased production costs, and mechanical harvesting became compulsory. Since then, these plantations have begun to be replaced by high-density mechanically harvested orchards. Rain

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Louise Ferguson and Sergio Castro Garcia

). The only realistic solution is to develop economically feasible mechanical harvesting. Mechanical harvesting has three components. The first is a harvesting technology able to remove and catch the fruit without economic damage to the crop or tree. The

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Bruno Casamali, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Alisson P. Kovaleski, Steven A. Sargent, and Rebecca L. Darnell

labor supplies affect a large number of specialty crops, and are becoming a major issue in blueberry production ( Zhang and Wilhelm, 2011 ). To decrease harvesting costs in blueberry production, mechanical harvesters have been developed, tested, and

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Long He, Jianfeng Zhou, Qin Zhang, and Manoj Karkee

scattered sparsely in tree canopies, manual harvesting is highly labor intensive and costly. As the availability of skilled labor is declining and the cost of labor is rising, researchers and growers have been seeking mechanical solutions for sweet cherry

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justn R. Morris


The research program on fruit crops at the University of Arkansas interrelates the areas of harvest mechanization, pre- and postharvest physiology and processing. This program is designed to serve a highly competitive, growing processing industry. Through cooperative research undertaken by the Departments of Horticultural Food Science and Agricultural Engineering, mechanical harvesters were developed for blackberries (refer HortScience 13:228-235) and strawberries (refer HortScience 13:000-000). Utilizing the principle of fruit abscission, blackberry fruit can be selectively mechanically harvested on a commercial basis at the rate of 1 acre per hour, while product quality is superior to hand-harvested fruit.

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Israel S. Joukhadar, Stephanie J. Walker, and Paul A. Funk

costs as compared with production in the United States. Red chile production labor costs were reduced to ≈10% ( Eastman et al., 1997 ) when the crop was transitioned to mechanical harvest. If green chile production shifted to mechanical harvest, like red

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Robert C. Ebel, Jacqueline K. Burns, Kelly T. Morgan, and Fritz Roka

Of the 193,000 ha of sweet oranges [ Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] grown commercially for juice in Florida ( Anonymous, 2008 ), 12,153 ha or ≈7% are mechanically harvested ( Florida Department of Citrus, 2008 ). The most common mechanical