stairs, picking an object from the floor or a low shelf, and toileting ( Long and Pavalko, 2004 ). Stability of balance in HAs Center of mass. The CoM of the subjects shifted during all eight HAs. During all HA motions, the CoM from the standing
corm was also detached from the plant afterward and weighed. All measurements for each plant took ≈5 min. Harvested materials were oven dried before dry mass and the mineral content measurements.
Plant material obtained from
Analytical Jena inductively coupled mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) (Analytik Jena AG, Jena, Germany) following isotope analysis methods described in van der Heijden et al. (2013 , 2014 ). Methods were validated by instrument intercalibration ( van der Heijden
community to calibrate and validate alternative methods or climate-based transpiration models. Recently, de Graaf et al. (2004) and Helmer et al. (2005) successfully tested this so-called “mass-balance” technique in a commercial greenhouse setting on
A two-dimensional mathematical model was developed to describe the time course of root growth and its spatial distribution for container-grown plants, using chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] as the model system. Potential root growth was considered as consisting of several concurrent processes, including branching, extension, and death. Branching rate was assumed to be related sigmoidally to existing root weight density. Root growth extension rate was assumed to be proportional to the existing root weight density above some threshold root weight density in adjacent cells. The senescence rate of root weight density was assumed to be proportional to existing root mass. The effects of soil matric potential and temperature on root growth were quantified with an exponential function and the modified Arrhenius equation, respectively. The actual root growth rate was limited by the amount of carbohydrate supplied by the canopy to roots. Parameters in the model were estimated by fitting the model to experimental data using nonlinear regression. Required inputs into the model included initial root dry weight density distribution, soil temperature, and soil water potential data. Being a submodel of the whole-plant growth model, the supply of carbohydrates from canopy to roots was required; the total root weight incremental rate was used to represent this factor. Rather than linking to a complex whole-plant C balance model, the total root weight growth over time was described by a logistic equation. The model was validated by comparing the predicted results with independently measured data. The model described root growth dynamics and its spatial distribution well. A sensitivity analysis of modeled root weight density to the estimated parameters indicated that the model was more sensitive to carbohydrate supply parameters than to root growth distribution parameters.
performed according to Wang et al. (2007) . Statistical analysis All data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver. 17.0) and presented as means ± se for each treatment ( n = 3, except in measurement of plant height, leaf number, and the mass fraction of
.0001) and meq of acid or base per gram of dry mass gain in 0:100 ( P = 0.0108), 20:80 ( P < 0.0001), and 40:60 ( P = 0.0055) solution. There were no statistical differences for meq of anions minus cations taken up ( P = 0.3054) or cation or anion balance
. The CO 2 supply rate from the cylinders was measured by a flow meter (FD-A600; Keyence Corp., Japan). The hourly averaged data were recorded and used for analyzing the CO 2 balance of the commercial CSAL. The analysis of the CO 2 balance was
imbalance in the body’s center of mass (COM), asymmetry of the pressure distribution under the feet, and an increase in body sway, thereby reducing balance ability and posture control ( Eng and Chu, 2002 ; Pang and Eng, 2008 ; Pollock et al., 2000 ). It
; Youngner, 1959 ). In non-compacted soils, the root mass of annual bluegrass was comparable to root masses of colonial bentgrass and kentucky bluegrass in the top 7.5 cm or 12.5 cm of soil ( Sprague and Burton, 1937 ). When grown in sandy loam soils at