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Bridget K. Behe, Jennifer H. Dennis, Charles R. Hall, Alan W. Hodges, and Robin G. Brumfield

assess production volumes and values, they do not collect information on marketing practices nor do they make regional comparisons. Our objective was to explore the regional marketing practices of U.S. commercial nurseries to determine whether there were

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Louis B. Anella, Michael A. Schnelle, and Dale M. Maronek

Oklahoma Proven is a plant evaluation and marketing program developed by the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at Oklahoma State University. An advisory committee comprised of representatives from state agencies, industry, and Oklahoma Botanical Garden and Arboretum Affiliate Gardens makes plant recommendations to an executive committee which in turn selects one tree, shrub, perennial, and annual for promotion each year. Trees and shrubs are selected 3 to 5 years ahead of promotion while perennials and annuals are selected 1 to 2 years in advance to give nurseries time to increase production. Marketing includes posters, billboards, pot stakes, and hang tags with the Oklahoma Proven logo and related extension service programming and news coverage. Consumers appreciate having help selecting plants and one retail nursery reported an 81% increase in sales of Oklahoma Proven plants. Funding for the program is provided by industry, Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, and a grant from Oklahoma Department of Agriculture.

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Robert G. Nelson, Benjamin L. Campbell, Robert C. Ebel, and William A. Dozier Jr.

the need for cooperative marketing and established the Gulf Coast Citrus Exchange ( Anderson, 1928 ). There are conflicting reports about where and when the Exchange was founded: either in 1910 by Mississippi growers ( Richardson, 1923 ) or in 1915 by

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Gary W. Williams, Oral Capps Jr, and Marco A. Palma

and vegetable products, the U.S. Congress authorized the establishment of marketing orders and agreements through the Agricultural Marketing Agreement of 1937 (7 U.S.C. 601–674). Marketing orders and agreements * are arrangements among producers

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Joseph Monson and Denise Mainville

respect to farm characteristics, production techniques, marketing strategies, and producer socioeconomic characteristics. Groups of berry producers were characterized using cluster analysis of the survey data. Three types of producers were identified: the

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Ariana Torres, Susan S. Barton, and Bridget K. Behe

the literature. One of the few peer-reviewed publications about any landscape marketing or business practices was published 25 years ago from a survey of 62 Georgia landscape architects ( Garber and Bondari, 1992a , 1992b , 1992c ). Florkowski and

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Laura Sue Kippen and W. Timothy Rhodus

76 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 510-515) Marketing and Economics: Cross-Commodity

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Thomas J. Otis

125 ORAL SESSION 34 (Abstr. 251–254) Cross-commodity: Marketing and Economics

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Carol A. Miles and D. Gayle Alleman

Asian crops can provide growers with a means to diversify crop production and marketing options. However, before expanding into Asian crops, growers should determine consumer expectations regarding a new crop. Existing market criteria for each crop (i.e., maturity, color, size, shape) must be considered for all markets including traditional Asian use as well as for the general North American market. If growers decide to target general consumers in North America, then consumer awareness and acceptance must be addressed in a marketing and promotion program. Extension publications, popular magazines, and newspapers are useful tools in a marketing and promotion program. Crop production information must be available to enable growers to successfully produce Asian crops. Yet, most growers are unlikely to invest heavily in new production equipment and systems until a market has been established for the crop. It is a challenge for university scientists and extension agents to concurrently create supply and demand for new Asian crops. To accomplish this, multidisciplinary teams that include university and community experts should initiate a diversified program of Asian crop production, promotion, and marketing.

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Margaret Balbach

The traditional content in introductory horticulture courses emphasizes plant structure, physiology, and production. At Illinois State Univ., however, the course work has been designed to meet University Studies requirements as well as departmental needs. The students taking the course are viewed as a market, and basic principles of marketing are used to gain and keep the interest of a wide variety of students, few of which have had any previous contact with horticulture. Extensive coverage is given to the historical, social, and economic status of horticulture in the United States. This nontraditional approach has been successful in the view of students and faculty. Postcourse surveys found that 98% of students felt that they had gained a good working knowledge of horticulture, and that 95% believed they would be a more knowledgeable consumer. Some departments use the University Studies program as a means of recruiting new majors, and this potential was not ignored in designing a marketing approach to the course content.